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Med Term Test 4 SFC

Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
pica compulsive eating of non food items: clay, ice; often a result of iron deficiency
schizophrenia psychotic disorder; gross distortions of reality, disturbance of language and communication, withdrawal from social interaction, disorganization & fragmentation of thought, perception, and emotional reaction
somatoform disorders characterized by physical symptoms for which no known cause exists
posttraumatic stress disorder acute emotional response to a traumatic event perceived as life threatening or severe emotional stress (plane crash, combat, abuse); symptoms: anxiety, sleep probs, nightmares, difficulty concentrating, depression
panic attack episode of sudden onset of acute anxiety, unpredictably occurring, feelings of acute apprehension, dyspnea, dizziness, sweating, chest pain, depersonalization, paresthesia, fear of dying, loss of mind or control
bipolar disorder major psychological disorder of mood; manifested by manic and depressive episodes that may alternate or may occur simultaneously
anxiety disorder emotional disorder characterized by feelings of apprehension, tension, uneasiness arising from anticipation of unreal or imagined danger
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder disorder of learning and behavioral problems; marked inattention, distractability, impulsiveness, hyperactivity
anorexia nervosa eating disorder characterized by disturbed perception of body image resulting in failure to maintain body weight, intensive fear of gaining weight, pronounced desire for thinness, and amenorrhea
autism mental disorder; onset during infancy or childhood; preoccupation with subjective mental activity, inability to interact socially, impaired communication, repetitive body movements
bulimia nervosa eating disorder; uncontrolled binge eating followed by purging
major depression mood disturbance; feelings of sadness, despair, discouragement, hopelessness, lack of joy, altered sleep patterns, difficulty with decision making and daily function
obsessive compulsive disorder disorder of intrusive, unwanted thoughts that result in tendency to perform repetitive acts or rituals, usually as a means of releasing tension or anxiety
afferent conveying toward a center (nerves carry impulses toward CNS)
ataxia lack of muscle coordination
cognitive pert. to mental processes of comprehension, judgment, memory, and reason
coma state of profound unconsciousness
concussion jarring or shaking that results in an injury; brain: caused by slight or severe head injury; symptoms are vertigo, headache, loss of consciousness
conscious awake, alert, aware of one's surroundings
convulsion sudden, involuntary contrxn of a group of muscles (seizure)
disorientation state of mental confusion as to time, place, or identity
dysarthria inability to use speech that is distinct and connected b/c of a loss of muscle control after damage to PNS or CNS
efferent conveying away from center
incoherent unable to express one's thoughts or ideas in an orderly, intelligible manner
paraplegia paralysis from the waist down caused by damage to the lower level of the spinal cord
seizure sudden attack with an involuntary series of contractions (convulsion)
shunt tube implanted in the body to redirect the flow of a fluid
unconsciousness state of being unaware of surroundings and incapable of responding to stimuli as a result of injury, shock, or illness
computed tomography of the brain (CT scan) use of compy to produce series of brain tissue images at any desired depth; noninvasive, painless, useful in dx of brain tumors
evoked potential studies (EP) group of dx tests; measure changes and responses in brain waves elicited by visual, auditory, or somatosensory stimuli
lumbar puncture (LP) insertion of a needles into subarachnoid space usu b/w 3rd and 4th lumbar vertebrae
magnetic resonance imaging of the brain or spine (MRI) noninvasive procedure; produces sectional images of soft tissues of brain and spine thru a strong magnetic field; uses no radiation; used to visualize tumors, edema, MS, and herniated disks
positron emission tomography of the brain (PET scan) imaging technique with radioactive substance that produces sectional imaging of the brain to examine blood flow and metabolic activity; images projected on a viewing screen
Alzheimer disease (AD) dz charac by early senility, confusion, loss of recognition of persons or familiar surroundings, restlessness, & impaired memory
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progressive muscle atrophy caused by hardening of nerve tissue on lateral columns of the SC (Lou Gehrig dz)
Bell palsy paralysis of muscles on one side of the face, usu temporary
cerebral aneurysm aneurysm in the cerebrum
cerebral embolism embolus lodges in cerebral artery, causing sudden blockage of blood supply to brain tissue: type of ischemic stroke; common cause is atrial fibrillation
cerebral palsy (CP) condition of lack of muscle control and partial paralysis, caused by brain defect or lesion present at birth or shortly after
dementia cognitive impairment with a loss of intellectual brain function; not normal aging; several causes; difficulty in performing complex tasks, reasoning, learning and retaining new info, orientation, word finding, and behavior
epilepsy disorder; main symptom is recurring seizures
hydrocephalus increased amt of CSF in the brain ventricles; can cause craniomegaly in infants
intracerebral hemorrhage bleeding into the brain as a result of a ruptured blood vessel w/i the brain; symptoms vary w/ location and often develop suddenly: include dyspnea, dysphagia, aphasia, diminished LOC, hemiparesis; type of ischemic stroke; assoc w/ high BP
multiple sclerosis (MS) degenerative dz charac by sclerotic patches along the brain and spinal cord
Parkinson disease (PD) chronic degenerative dz of the CNS; symptoms: resting tremors of hands & feet, shuffling gait, rigidity, & expressionless face; usu occurs after 50 yrs
sciatica inflammation of the sciatic nerve, causing pain that travels from the thigh thru the leg to the foot and toes; caused by injury, infection, arthritis, herniated disk, prolonged pressure on the nerve from long-term sitting
shingles viral dz caused by herpes zoster that affects peripheral nerves & causes blisters on the skin that follow the course of the affected nerves
stroke occurs when there is an interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, depriving nerve cells in the affected area of O2 and nutrients; cells may be damaged or die w/i minutes; speech, memory, movement affected
subarachnoid hemorrhage bleeding caused by a ruptured blood vessel just outside the brain that rapidly fills the space b/w the brain and skull with blood; intense, sudden headache, N,V, and neck pain; type of hemorrhagic stroke
transient ischemic attack (TIA) sudden deficient supply of blood to the brain lasting a short time; symptoms similar to stroke, but temporary and outcome is complete recovery; often a warning sign of eventual stroke, however
esthesi/o sensation, sensitivity, feeling
meningi/o; mening/o meninges
ment/o mind
mon/o one, single
myel/o spinal cord
phas/o speech
poli/o gray matter
quadr/i four
radic/o, radicul/o nerve root
neur/o nerve
rhiz/o nerve root
-iatrist specialist, physician
-ictal seizure, attack
-paresis slight paralysis
Causes of hemorrhagic stroke the result of bleeding caused by: 1. intracerebral hemorrhage 2. subarachnoid hemorrhage
Causes of ischemic stroke the result of a blocked blood vessel caused by: 1. cerebral thrombosis 2. cerebral embolism
Funtion of the nervous and endocrine systems regulating and controlling activities of the other body systems
Brain major portion of the CNS
cerebrum largest portion of the brain, divided into left and right hemispheres; controls the skeletal muscles, interprets general senses, contains centers for sight and hearing; site of intellect, memory, and emotional reactions
ventricles spaces w/i brain that contain CSF, which flows thru the subarachnoid space around the brain and SC
cerebellum located under posterior portion of the cerebrum; function: to assist in the coordination of skeletal muscles & to maintain balance; a.k.a. hindbrain
brainstem connects brain to the spinal cord; site where ten of the 12 cranial nerves originate
pons "bridge"; connects the cerebrum w/ the cerebellum and brainstem; part of brainstem
medulla oblongata located b/w pons and SC; contains centers that control respiration, heart rate, muscles in blood vessel walls (which assist in determining BP); part of brainstem
midbrain superior portion of brainstem
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clear, colorless fluid in ventricles that flows thru subarachnoid space in brain and SC; cushions brain and SC from shock, transports nutrients, clears metabolic waste
spinal cord passes thru the vertebral canal extending from the medulla oblongata to the level of 2nd lumbar vertebra; conducts nerve impulses to & from brain and initiates reflex action to sensory info w/o input from the brain
meninges 3 layers of membrane that cover brain and spinal cord
dura mater tough outer layer of the meninges
arachnoid delicate middle layer of meninges; loosely attached to pia mater by weblike fingers, allowing for subarachnoid space
pia mater thin inner layer of the meninges
nerve cordlike structure that carries impulses from one part of the body to another; 12 pairs of cranial; 31 pairs spinal
ganglion group of nerve cell bodies located outside CNS
glia cells that form support and nourish nervous tissue; some assist in CSF secretion and others assist w/ phagocytosis
Types o Glia astroglia, oligodengroglia, microglia
neuron conducts nerve impulses to carry out the function of the nervous system; cannot be replaced, if destroyed
Cranial nerves (I-VI) I Olfactory II Optic III Oculomotor IV Trochlear V Trigeminal VI Abducens
Cranial nerves (VII-XII) VII Facial VIII Vestibulocochlear IX Glossopharyngeal X Vagus XI Accessory XII Hypoglossal
gli/o glia, gluey substance
dur/o hard, dura mater
paresthesia abnormal sensation (burning, prickling, tingling; often in the extremeties; caused by nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy)
Created by: 2049796