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Pathophysiology Term

Pathophysiology Terms Fr Mosbys Paramedic Textbook Rev 3RD Edition

TERMDEFINITION
acidosis a condition marked by a high concentration of hydogen ions.
active transport a carrier mediated process that can move substances against a concentration gradient.
aerobic of or pertaining to the presence of air or oxygen
afterload the total resistance against which blood must be pumped; aka peripheral vascular resistance.
alkalosis a condition marked by a low concentration of hydrogen ions
allergens substance that can produce hypersensitivity reactions in the body
anaerobic of or pertaining to the absence of oxygen
anion an ion with a negative charge
antigens substances (usually proteins) that cause formation of an antibody and that react specifically with that antibody
atrophy decrease in the size of a cell, which adversely effects cell function
B lymphocytes the lymphocytes responsible for antibody mediated immunity.
cardiac output the volume of blood pumped each minute by the ventricle
cation an ion with a positive charge
complement system a group of proteins that coat bacteria; the proteins then either help kill the bacteria directly, or they assist neutrophils (in the blood) and macrophages (in the tissues) to engulf and destroy the bacteria
diffusion the process by which solid, particulate matter in a fluid moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, resulting in an even distribution of the particles in the fluid
dysplasia abnormal cellular growth
edema the accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces
extracellular fluid the water found outside the cells, including that in the intravascular and interstitial compartments
facilitated diffusion a carrier mediated process that moves substances into or out of cells from a high to low concentration
hypercalcemia a higher than normal concentration of calcium in the blood
hyperkalemia a higher than normal concentration of potassium in the blood
hypermagnesemia a higher than normal concentration of magnesium in the blood
hyperatremic a term describing a higher than normal concentration of sodium in the blood
hyperplasia excessive increase in the number of cells
hypersensitivity reaction an altered immunological response to ann antigen that results in a pathological immune response upon reexposure
hypertonic a term used to describe a slutin that causes cells to shrink
hypertrophy increase in the size of a cell
hypokalemia lower than normal concentration of potassium in the blood
hypomagnesemia a lower than normal concentration of magnesium in the blood plasma
hyponatremic a term describing a lower than normal concentration of sodium in the blood
hypoperfusion severely inadequate circulation that results in insufficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients necessary for normal tissue and cellular function, aka shock
hypotonic a term used to describe a solution that causes cells to swell
hypoxemia a lower than normal oxygen content of the blood as measured in an arterial blood sample
immune response a defense function of the body that produces antibodies to destroy invading antigens and malignancies
inflammatory response a tissue reaction to injury or to an antigen; it may include pain, swelling, itching, redness, heat and loss of function.
interstitial fluid the fluid found in all body cells
ischemia a state of insufficient perfusion of oxygenated blood to a body organ or part.
isotonic a term used to describe a solution that causes cells neither to shrink nor swell.
lactic acidosis a disorder characterized by an accumulation of lactic acid in the blood, resluting ina lowered pH in muscle and serum
mediated transport mechanisms mechanisms that use carrier molecules to move large, water soluble molecules or electrically charged molecules aross cell membranes.
metaplasia a change from one cell type to another that is better able to tolerate adverse conditions; a conversion into a form that is not normal for that cell.
multiple organ dysfunction syndrome the progressive failure of two or more organ systems after a severe ilness or injury
necrosis death of a cell or group of cells as the result of disease or injury
negative feedback mechanisms mechanisms that tend to produce a response that balances a change in system
neoplasia new and abnormal development of cells, which may be benign or malignant.
osmolality the osmotic pressure of a solution
osmosis the diffusion of solvent (water) through a membrane from a less concentrated sollution to a more concentrated solution.
partial pressure the pressure exerted by a single gas.
peripheral vascular resistance the total resistance against which blood must be pumped; aka afterload.
pH an inverse logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
preload the amount of blood returning to the ventricle.
semipermeable membrane a membrane that allows some fluids and substances to pass through them but not others usually depending on size, shape, electrical charge, or other chemical properties.
shock a condition of severely inadequate blood flow to the body's peripheral tissues that is associated with life threatening cellular dysfunction; aka hypoperfusion.
solutes substances dissolved in solution
starling hyposthesis the concept that describes the movement of fluid back and forth across the capillary wall (net filtration)
stroke volulme the volume of blood ejected from one ventricle in a single heartbeat.
T lymphocytes the lymphocytes responsible for cell mediated immunity
virulence the relative strength of a pathogen.
Created by: clcnew