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Nutrition 2010

Fundamentals of Nursing-Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
What is nutrition? the study of foods, nutrients and diet. It is an essential element for body process. The body uses it for growth and development.
What are the 6 classes of nutrients? Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats/Lipids, Minerals, Vitamins, Water/Fluids
these are nutrients that must be obtained thru food because the body cannot make them for itself Essential Nutrients
1) Carbohydrates- Made of C, H and O. Major energy source. These spare the proteins. (Think of these as the ones working in the yard.) Also provides fiber. Without sufficient amount of carbs, ketone acidosis will result thus causing kidney failure. Carbohydrates
Help to build and repair tissue. Must be included in the diet of those with impaired skin integrity. Aid in fluid balance. These are the basis of blood building, antibodies and hormones (e.g. insulin) Proteins
Is the concentrated energy source for the body. It insulates and helps to protect the body’s organs. It serves as a carrier for the fat-soluble vitamin A, D, E and K. Fat
Aid in the formation of teeth and bone, regulate fluid/electrolyte balance, oxygen transportation, tissue growth and would healing Minerals
Serve as coenzymes. These help other enzymes trigger reactions necessary for tissue repair, wound healing, fighting infection, metabolism and regulation of body processes. Vitamins
Primary solvent of the body. Can live for up to 2 days without it. The body needs about 64 ounces per day to aid in the regulation of temperature, pH and maintain the balance of fluid and electrolytes. Water
what is the percent of water in an average adult? 50-60%
what is the percent of water for an infant/child 80%
is the recommended dietary allowances for a particular gender group and at given life stage. RDA
is the adequate intake if a nutrient that is recommended AI
is the estimated energy requirement or caloric need of a particular group EER
resting energy requirements of an individual needed to maintain body functions. REE
kilocalorie (Kcal) is the unit of measurement require to raise the body of 1°C/1kg of water. This unit specifies the heat energy in a particular amount of food. Synonymous with energy.
used to describe foods that supply calories with little to no nutritional value empty calories
caloric values of nutrients ** 1 Carbohydrate=4Kcal 1 Fat= 9Kcal 1 Protein= 4Kcal** 1g of alcohold provides 7Kcal
The amount of calories needed for an individual is dependent upon? activity level, age, sex, and weight and body composition. Remember that infants have the highest caloric need of any age group.
Carbohydrates for 3 main classifications monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
these are made up of 1 sugar molecule. These are also known as simple sugars/carbohydrates monosaccharide
3 types of monosaccharides glucose, fructose, galactose
The end product of carbohydrate digestion. The primary form used by body. Glucose is stored as glycogen. Glycogen in then stored as fat. glucose
Is also known as fruit sugar. This is the sweetest sugar. Comes from honey and saps. fructose
Is not found in nature. Is combined with glucose in lactose. galactose
these are made up of 2 sugar molecules. disaccharides
3 types of disaccharides sucrose, lactose, and maltose
table sugar. Made of fructose and glucose. sucrose
 milk sugar. Many are lactose intolerant due to a lack of the lactase enzyme. This results in bloating, gas and diarrhea. lactose
not found freely food but is produced thru starch digestion in the process of malting. maltose
these are complex carbohydrates made of long chains of sugars which are usually insoluble to water. polysaccharides
4 types of polysaccharides starch, dextrin, fiber, glycogen
chief source of carbohydrates in the diet. Comes from plants. Found in grains, tubers, legumes, bulbs and seeds. Starch must be changed in the body to glucose in order for the body to use. Cooked starches can be acted upon by ptyalin. starch
formed in starch digestion by heat or enzymatic action dextrin
body’s storage form of carbohydrates but is not a significant form of carbohydrates in the body. glycogen
also known as roughage, is the parts of a plant resistant to digestion that aids in digestion. fiber
what are 2 forms you can find fiber water soluble and water insoluble
stay in stomach longer. These are very useful in improving glucose tolerance in diabetics. Encourage those with diabetes to eat oats, legumes, apples, pectin, gums and mucilages. water soluble fiber
includes cellulose and is the framework wheat bran and whole-grain products water insoluble fiber
dietary fiber helps to prevent what? constipation, lowers blood glucose, aids in weight reduction and contributes to a feeling of fullness.
fasting blood glucose level should be between what and what? 65-115 mg/dL
another name for high glucose that results from a slowed production of insulin by pancreas hyperglycemia
another name for (low glucose) results from over-production of insulin. hypoglycemia
digestion uses ______ and _______ processes chemical and mechanical
mechanical process involves peristalisis (chewing or churning)
chemical process involves enzymatic activity
digestion begins where? the mouth
where does most digestion occur the small intestine
glucose is used for immediate energy or else it is stored where? the liver or muscle as glycogen
most fats are classified as? triglycerides
fatty acids are classified by the number of bonds between each carbon (True or False) True
no double bonds; solid at room temperature. Found in animal fats, coconut and palm/palm kernel oils and some fish. saturated fat
help to lower cholesterol levels when used in place of saturated fats. You want these. These tend to be soft or liquid at room temp. unsaturated
2 kinds of unsaturated Monounsaturated- canola, olive and peanut Polyunsaturated- safflower, soybean, sunflower and corn oils
fatty acid created when vegetable oil is hydrogenated in order to increase shelf life and make it more solid at room temperature. trans fat
member of the sterol group; found only in animal tissue; major part of brain and nerve tissues cholesterol
Cholesterol is needed to make hormones, vitamin D and bile acids
Too much of this bad cholesterol can aid in the development of atherosclerosis and CVD. A diet low in saturated fat should be encouraged. LDL
what is considered the "good cholesterol" HDL
digestion of fats 29. Fats are broken down into tiny droplets in the SI by bile. Pancreatic Lipase also helps to emulsify fats in the SI. Most of these fatty acids are then absorbed by the lymph system.
is the foundation of every cell; builds and repairs tissues; composed of CHON; proteins are made up of building blocks called amino acids. protein
protein tidbits  Every major organ except the brain will shrink during prolonged protein deficiency.  If protein deficiency is prolonged enough, the body will begin to use alternative sources.  Enzymes, antibodies, thyroid hormones and insulin are proteins.
provide all essential amino acids is sufficient quantities to promote growth and maintenance. All animal proteins (except gelatin) and processed soy proteins fall into this category. complete proteins
lack sufficient amounts of one or more essential amino acids. Plant proteins are generally this incomplete proteins
what type of consumers are considered to have a deficiet of incomplete proteins unless they consume a variety of plant proteins over the course of a day? vegetarians
chemical digestion of protein begins in stomach w/ the introduction of pepsin which breaks protein down into polypeptides. With addition of trypsin in the SI, proteins are broken down into amino acids. From there they are then taken into the intestinal walls by the brush border villi.
electrolyte that functions in fluid and electrolyte balance, plays a part in muscles irritability, nerve impulses sodium
where can sodium be found processed foods and some vegetables
what can an excess of sodium be called and what can it cause hypernatremia-hypertension and edemia
what is a deficiency of sodium called and what does it cause hyponatremia-very rare to have this, but can cause diarrhea, vomiting, renal disorders, nausea, muscle cramps, dizziness
aids in fluid and electrolyte balance, acid/base balance, nerve impulse transmission, regulation of skeletal and muscle activity. Commonly seen in dehydrated clients. potassium
where is potassium found Found in fruits and vegetables, dried peas, beans, whole grains, milk and meats
excess potassium is called what and can cause what? Hyperkalemia- muscular weakness and vomiting
lack of potassium is called what and can cause what? Hypokalemia- muscular weakness, paralysis, anorexia, confusion;seen mostly in dehydration
aids in fluid and electrolyte balance, component of hydrochloric acid needed for proper digestion. It is rare to see a deficiency of this due to its combination with sodium. chloride
formation of bones and teeth, blood clotting factors, nerve transmission, blood pressure, absorption of certain minerals and medication can be affected by it calcium
calcium found? Found in milk products, kale, broccoli, spinach, some cereals, canned salmon with bones.
calcium deficiency Hypocalcemia – Rickets (kids), Osteoporosis (Adults)
calcium excess Hypercalcemia- Constipation, renal stones, impaired iron and mineral absorption, streaky stool
oxygen transport, hemoglobin formation, constituent of the enzyme system iron
iron toxicity joint disease, alopecia (hair loss), enlarged liver, impotence, death in high in children
iron deficiency impaired immunity, lethargy, fatigue, pale mucous membranes, impaired healing. Seen in pregnancy and menstruating women.
is needed for tissue growth and repair, sexual maturation and immune function. Hair loss, stunted growth, eye and skin lesions and taste abnormalities can result from a deficiency of what?. zinc
Too much can lead to anemia, elevated LDL, renal failure, muscle pain and dizziness. zinc
necessary to help regulate body processes; synthesizing compounds in bone and blood; needed to extract energy from carbohydrates, fat and protein; work as coenzymes; easily destroyed by heat thus steam to maintain them; not stored in the body vitamins
vitamins are classified as: Water Soluble- B and C (think about needing water to take BC’s) Fat Soluble- A,D,E,K (think about the 4 letters making a block of fat)
what is more likely to occur when using supplements of vitamins? hypervitaminosis
is needed for normal growth and development of bones and teeth, immune functions and proper skin and mucous membrane maintenance. It also plays a vital role in vision. vitamin A
A deficiency of this vitamin can cause night blindness A
Vitamin A can be found in Found only in animal sources such as liver, butter, egg yolks and fortified milk. Eating deep green and orange fruits and vegetables provides carotene which is a precursor to vitamin A.
Vitamin ___ is needed in the development and maintenance of bones. D
what is the best source to receive vitamin D and what are other sources? The best source of this the sunlight. Another common source is milk. Other sources include fish and liver oils.
what can hypervitaminosis of vitamin D cause renal stones
aids in blood clotting factors (prothrombin), helps to regulate blood calcium vitamin K
good sources of vitamin K Good sources include liver, egg yolk, cabbage, spinach and leafy green vegetables
deficiency of vitamin K hemorrhage
IMPORTANT FACT!  Intake of foods with vitamin K should be limited if client is taking blood thinners such as warafrin!
these act as coemzymes and absorbed directly into blood stream through the intestinal walls. They easily excreted in the urine when consumed in excess. Generally not seen as toxic. B vitamins
Can obtain from pork, whole grains, legumes and organ meats. B1 (thiamin) deficiency causes beriberi ( poor appetite, lethargy, confusion, anorexia, heart failure)
Found in liver, kidney, yeast, peanut butter, whole grains, dried peas and beans. • B3 (niacin) deficiency causes pellagra ( presents the 4Ds:diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, and death. Skin lesions
cannot be absorbed and deficiency can cause anemiaror pernicious anemia. Important in maintaining myelin sheath. Gastric surgery or gastric cancer can interfere with absorption. B12 (cobalamin)
is an antioxidant important for metabolism and proper immune system function. Hypervitaminosis results in gout. Hypovitaminosis results in scurvy. vitamin C
is common in African American men and Asian Americans who use a great deal of salt and MSG. hypertension
more common in African Americans, Indians and Asian American. lactose intolerance
what ethnic group's Diet is high in fat, sodium and sugar but may be lacking in calcium, vitamin D and potassium. african american
who has a Diet is high in fiber, starch and fat. Calcium, iron, vitamins A and C are low. Obesity is common. Fruits and vegetables are not eaten regularly. Main meal is usually served at lunch. hispanic
in this cultural group's diet Obesity is rare. Raw vegetables are rarely served. Diet is high in fiber, low in fat, low in protein and high in sodium. asian americans
japanese Milk is rarely used by adults. Diet is low in fat but rich in nutrients and high in sodium.
cultural group-Calcium and protein may be inadequate. Meals are not considered will prepared unless a large amount of fat had been added. middle eastern
cultural group-Corn is a staple. Milk is seldom used. Calcium is low. Obesity is high. native americans
religious group-use separate dishes pans and silverware to serve meats and dairy foods. Adhere to Kosher practice. No pork, shellfish and only front quarter to animal is to be eaten. jewish
no caffeine, no alcohol. Meat is eaten sparingly during winter. mormon
abstain from meat on Fridays during Lent catholic
lacto ovo vegans or vegetarians. No caffeine, pork, alcohol or shellfish Seventh Day Adventist-
lacto ovo vegans hindu
no alcohol. They fast from dawn to dusk for a month each year. Similar to Kosher laws. muslim
Vegetarians fall into 3 categories  Vegan- no animal foods (no egg or dairy)  Lacto vegans- no eggs  Ovo vegans- no dairy  Lacto ovo vegans- can eat eggs and dairy
full diet for those without a condition that would dictate dietary choices. Includes almost everything regular diet
PHYTOCHEMICALS PREVIOUSLY UNIDENTIFIED NATURALLY OCCURRING COMPONENTS IN PLANT FOODS THAT MAY HELP PROTECT AGAINST DISEASE
Created by: kstokes1