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Nutrition/Fluids TAS

Nutrition and Fluids NP1 Test 5

What vitamins are responsible for shiny hair? Zinc, Biotin
Why can zinc not be taken on an empty stomach? Upsets stomach, causes cramping
What antioxidants are responsible for bright eyes? Vitamins A, C, E
What is necessary for appropriate body weight and development? Proper diet, exercise, hydration
What encourages regular bowel movements? Plenty if fiber and hydration
In order to stay alert, a person needs... adequate sleep, healthy diet and exercise
Define nutrients. simple substances that are ingested, digested and absorbed by the body cells for nourishment
Name the six essential nutrients Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, water
Which nutrient is the major source of energy for the human body? Carbohydrates
How many basic types of carbohydrates are there? 2; simple and complex
How many basic types of proteins are there? 2; complete and incomplete
What are organic substances composed of amino acids? Proteins
What are proteins responsible for in the human body? building and repairing body tissue
What are lipids also known as? fats or oils
What do lipids supply the human body with? heat and energy
What three essential nutrients regulate body functions? vitamins, minerals, and water
What is necessary for growth, healing, and maintaining body function? Good Nutrition
Poor diet increases the risk of: infection, poor healing, illness, decreased mental and physical functioning
Name a simple carbohydrate sugars
Name a compound carbohydrate starches
Define a sugar water soluble simple carbohydrate such as monosaccharides and disaccharides
Define starches insoluble, nonsweet, compound carbohydrate such as poly saccharides
Define fibers complex carbohydrates derived from plants
What are the building blocks of proteins? Amino Acids
What essential nutrient is needed for tissue growth and repair? Proteins
The only nutrient that can make new cells and repair tissue Proteins
A _________ protein contains all the amino acids. Complete
Give examples of complete proteins: meat, fish, poultry, eggs
Give examples of incomplete proteins: soybeans, nuts, beans
Name the organic substance that is greasy and insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol: Lipids
Lipids that are solid at room temperature fats
Lipids that are liquid at room temperature oils
Name the four classifications of fatty acids: saturated, unsaturated, simple, compound
Which vitamins do not dissolve in water and are stored in the body? Fat soluble
Which vitamins are fat soluble? A, D, E, K
Which vitamins dissolve in water, are not stored in the body, and must be replaced regularly? Water soluble vitamins
Which vitamins are water soluble? B complex and C
What are some methods of preserving the nutritional content of food? Expose to as little water as possible, Keep lids on when cooking, avoid high temps and long cooking times, use the cooking water, store fruits and vegetables cold, keep milk in opaque containers, use food in whole form
Maintain a ________ weight. healthy
Eat a diet low in _____ and _______. fat, cholesterol
Eat a _____-________ diet. well balanced
Limit sugar, salt and ________. alcohol
Follow Food Guide _________. pyramid
What is the recommended daily servings of fruit? 2-4
Engaging in regular physical activity and reducing sedentary activities promotes health, psychological well-being, healthy body weight
What do the steps and the person on them symbolize in the MyPyramid graphic? Physical activity should be a part of everyday healthy living
inability to obtain food physiological stressor
increase in caloric requirements physiological stressor
difficulty ingesting food due to teeth, digestion problems, ect. physiological stressor
food preferences, attitudes towards food psychological stressors
Food should be presented as a meal, not as a _____. treatment
Why should food be presented as a meal, not a treatment? Promotes a positive and healthy attitude towards food.
Beliefs and values associated with food and eating socio-cultural variable
life style that influences nutrition or cooking skills socio-cultural variable
economic status socio-cultural variable
changes in caloric needs due to age is an example of a developmental stressor
A Jewish client avoiding pork is an example of... a spiritual variable
What is the acronym used to remember the other factors used to assess nutritional status? DETERMINE
The D in DETERMINE stands for Disease
The 3 E's in DETERMINE stands for Eating poorly, economic hardship, elder years
The T in DETERMINE stands for Tooth loss/mouth pain
The N in DETERMINE stands for Needs assistance with self care
The R in DETERMINE stands for Reduced social contact
The M in DETERMINE stands for Multiple meds
The I in DETERMINE stands for Involuntary weight loss
Age, sex and activity have nothing to do with nutritional assessment. T or F. F. All 3 must be considered when assessing nutrition.
Nutritional assessment includes watching for _____ eating. difficulty
_________ in appetite or weight, including nausea and vomiting, should be part of nutritional assessment. Changes
Medication history is an important part of nutritional assessment. T or F. True
Physical disability can affect... purchasing, preparing, and eating food.
Cultural and religious beliefs are not part of nutritional assessment. T or F. False
Nutrition may be affected by living ________ and _______ status. arrangements, economic
What time frame should be recalled for a diet or food frequency record? 24 hours
What is the more reliable indicator of a person's health? Body Mass Index
What is the formula for BMI? wt in Kg/(ht in meters)squared
BMI results must be used carefully in which patients? Those with fluid retentions
Normal BMI 18.5-24.9
A client that is tired and listless, under or overweight and has dry skin, brittle nails, red eyes, and swollen lips exhibits signs of... Inadequate nutrition
GI signs of inadequate nutrition are... anorexia, diarrhea, indigestion, constipation, enlarged liver
A normal, healthy tongue is beefy red. T or F. False. This could be a sign of inadequate nutrition.
sensory loss, mental confusion, and irritability are all signs of possible inadequate nutrition you would observe in the ______ system. Nervous
Finish the nursing diagnosis Imbalanced nutrition: _______ than body requirements r/t excessive intake in relation to _________ need amb reported dysfunctional eating and _______ activity level. more, metabolic
Height, weight, BMI, ADL's, walk/gait and lab work are what king of data? Objective
Stimulating appetite Determine the reasons for poor appetite and then help resolve it
Assisting clients with meals and resolving difficulty swallowing are... nursing interventions
List two "common" diets: regular, light
Physician ordered diets NPO, clear liquids, full liquids
Name four general types of diets: common, physician ordered, special, renal
NPO means nothing by mouth
When are light diets are typically recommended? post-op
What is also known as a standard house diet? regular
Give examples of clear liquids broth, tea, cola, plain gelatin, cranberry juice, popsicles, clear coffee
Give examples of full liquids milk, cream soups, custard, grits, strained cereals, ice cream, pudding, yogurt
What defines a full liquid? food that is liquid at room temperature or melts at body temperature
What is a soft and mechanical diet? Easy to chew and digest (chopped, pureed, strained), no strong flavors
What is a low fiber, low residue diet? minimal residue in bowel (no raw fruits or vegetables, nothing fried), no seeds or skins
What does a high fiber diet consist of? Stimulates BM, such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
List the characteristics of a bland diet... mechanically and chemically non-irritating, low in roughage and spices, moderate temperatures
Baked foods, and lean meats are part of a... low fat diet
What is a ketogenic diet? high in fats and protein, low in carbohydrates
For what condition is a ketogenic diet indicated? Epilepsy
A renal diet is indicated for ______ stage kidney or renal patients. end
Client is prescribed a diet with no canned foods and carbohydrates and fats are the principal sources of energy. What diet is this? Renal
Why might a renal diet be supplemented with vitamins and electrolytes? It may be adequate due to the limited potassium, phosphorous, and fluids.
What is the term given to snacks of fruit, ice cream, milk, crackers or Ensure that are given between meals? Supplements
What are the benefits of supplements? prevent hunger, increase calories, increase protein for healing, prevent hypoglycemia
Client is prescribed a diet with no canned foods, soups, shellfish, instant food, sodas, sodium chloride, baking soda or cholesterol. What diet is this? Cardiac or Hypertensive Diet
How does a nurse prepare a client for a meal? Sit up, oral hygiene, check dentures, ensure toileting first
How does a nurse prepare the client's room for a meal? empty all bedpans and urinals, eliminate any unpleasant odors
T or F. Client identification need not be checked before meals, as meals are not medication. False. Always verify client before administering meals.
What are some ways that the nurse can assist a client with eye/vision problems? Open drink cartons, cut food, butter bread, and tell patient position of food using clock method.
T or F. Nurses should ensure that client meals are hot, and should re-heat as necessary. True
What should the nurse record concerning the client's consumption of a meal? The percentage consumed.
T or F. When dealing with a client that is nauseated or vomiting, medications should be given last to ensure effectiveness. False. Prescribed medication should be given BEFORE meals.
The nurse has encouraged fluid intake (if not contraindicated), promoted oral care, eliminated odors, exposed client to fresh air, and encouraged client to rest before smaller meals. What is the client possibly experiencing? Nausea and Vomiting
What does a dysphagia diet consist of? pureed, soft, thickened liquids
When dealing with a client that has aspiration precautions, the client should sit up at ____ degrees, and tip his/her head ________. 90, forward
A client has drooping on the right side of the face due to stroke. Where should the nurse place the food in the client's mouth? The unaffected, or left, side.
The head of the bed should be __________ for ____-____ mins after meals. elevated, 30-60
What does it mean to check for "pocketing" after client meals? To ensure that the client has not held the food in the cheek instead of chewing and swallowing.
What is a reason that tube feeding may be ordered? Food cannot be passed from the mouth tot he stomach, severe dysphagia, anorexia
gavage washing out the contents of the stomach using a tube
What are two types of tube feedings? continuous or intermittent
At rest, what is the capacity of the human stomach? 50mL
What is the normal pH range of stomach contents? 1-4
What are the two main divisions of body fluids? intracellular and extracellular
Intracellular fluids are found within the cells and make up ___ of the body fluid. 2/3
Extracellular fluids are found outside the cells and make up ___ of the body fluid. 1/3
Another name for intravascular fluid is ______. plasma
Interstitial fluid surrounds the cells and includes lymph
Give examples of transcellular fluids... CSF, pleural, peritoneal, and synovial fluids
What is the amount of total body fluid in a 154 lb. person? 40 L
Oxygen from the lungs, dissolved nutrients from GI tract, excretory products from metabolism and ions make up... extracellular and intracellular fluids
positively charged ions cations
negatively charged ions anions
What salt is the major cation in the extracellular fluid? Sodium
What is the major anion in extracellular fluid? Chloride
What are the majors ions in extracellular fluid? NaCl
What are the major ions in intracellular fluid? KCl
Sodium excretion is always accompanied by what? Loss of water
Fluids and Electrolytes move through a semi-permeable membrane by the process of ... Osmosis
Diffusion Intermingling of molecules in liquid, gases, and solids by random movement.
Where is Sodium (Na) serum found? Extracellular fluid
Where is Potassium (K) fluid found? Intracellular fluid
What is the normal range for Sodium in the adult? 135-145mEq/L
Serum sodium deficit Hyponatremia
Serum sodium excess Hypernatremia
What is the normal range for Potassium in the adult? 3.5-5.0mEq/L
Hypokalemia Serum potassium deficit
Hyperkalemia Serum potassium excess
What is the primary regulator of fluid intake? Thirst mechanism
What are the 4 routes of fluid output? urine, insensible water loss, noticeable water loss, feces
Insensible water loss water not usually noticed or measured, such as breathing or through skin
What are examples of noticeable losses of water through skin? severe burns, heavy sweating
What is the average fluid intake for an adult? 2200-2700mL per day
What is the average fluid output for an adult? 2500mL per day
1 kg is equal to... 2.2 lbs
What are some causes of fluid deficit? vomit, diarrhea, NG suction, bleeding, excessive sweat, excessive urine
A client has limited fluid intake and is losing more fluid than than they are taking in. What is the client at risk for? Dehydration or fluid volume deficit
The client has dry lips and mucous membranes, dry skin and poor turgor, and scanty, dark urine. What are these a sign of? dehydration
An infant has an increased pulse, hypotension, and produces no tears when crying. What are these a sign of? dehydration
What are the symptoms of fluid excess? edema, lung congestion, increase blood pressure, and respiratory rate, jugular vein distention, dilute urine
anasarca whole body swelling
NPO no food or fluids by mouth
What nursing intervention would be appropriate for a client with an NPO order? frequent mouth care
Why is encouraging fluids important unless contraindicated? prevents UTI's and dehydration
What does FF stand for? Force fluids
A fluid restriction means... fluids are limited to a prescribed amount
What might be some reasons a Dr. would order fluid restrictions? Client with kidney, heart or liver disease
How might a nurse best enforce a fluid restriction? Remove water pitcher, strict input/output, divide fluids over three shifts, frequent oral care
Fluids taken by mouth, tube feedings, TPN, and IV fluids are all recorded under fluid input
What is the normal urine output? 30-50mL per hour
Output includes: urine, vomit, wound drainage, NG suction, diarrhea
What graduated containers are used for output measurement? urinal, pilgrim hat, specimen cup
T or F. Output should be measured in bedpan immediately after use. False. Contents of bedpan must be transferred to a graduated container to be measured.
Who has primary responsibility to monitor IV fluids? RN
A student nurse notices that the settings on the IV pump are inconsistent with Dr's orders. What should the student nurse do first? Report it. Student nurses may not make these changes alone.
What is responsible for shiny hair? zinc and biotin
What is responsible for bright eyes? vitamins A, C, E
What is responsible for clear skin? vitamin E
Carbs have how many calories per mg? 4
Proteins have how many calories per mg? 4
Lipids have how many calories per mg? 9
Alcohol has how many calories per mg? 7
Created by: tiffiny090180