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Cardio Terminology

Cardiovascular Terminology Chapter 10 Med Term Test 3

What is the function of the cardiovascular system? Pumps and transports blood throughout the body.
What does the cardiovascular system include? The heart and a closed network of blood vessels.
What is the heart? A muscular, cone shaped organ about the size of a person's fist.
Where is the heart located? Behind the sternum and between the lungs. It consists of 4 chambers: the left/right atrias on top, and the right/left ventricles on bottom.
What is the tricuspid valve? The right atrioventricular valve.
Where is the tricuspid valve located? Between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
What is the mitral valve? The bicuspid, or left atrioventricular valve.
Where is the mitral valve located? Between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
What are the semilunar valves? The pulmonary valve, and the aortic valve.
Where is the pulmonary valve located? Between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
Where is the aortic valve located? Between the aorta and the left ventricle.
What is the pericardium? A two-layer sac consisting of an external fibrous and an internal serous layer
What does the serous layer of the pericardium do? It secretes a fluid that facilitates movement of the heart.
What is the serous layer of the pericardium ALSO called? The epicardium.
What does the epicardium do? It covers the heart.
What is the myocardium? The middle, thick, muscular layer of the heart.
What are blood vessels? Tube-like structures that carry blood throughout the body.
What are arteries? Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
What kind of blood do the arteries carry? Oxygenated blood, except for the pulmonary artery.
What does the pulmonary artery carry? Deoxygenated blood and wastes from the heart to the lungs.
What are arterioles? The smallest arteries
What is the aorta The largest artery in the body
Where is the aorta located? It originates at the left ventricle, and descends through the thorax and abdomen.
What are veins? Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.
What do veins carry? Deoxygenated blood, except for the pulmonary vein.
What does the pulmonary vein carry? Oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
What are venules? The smalles veins.
What is the vena cava? The largest veins in the body.
What does the superior vena cava do? Returns blood from the upper body
What does the inferior vena cava do? Carries blood to the heart from areas of the body below the diaphragm.
What are capillaries? Microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules. Materials are passed between the blood and tissue through capillary walls.
What is the function of blood? Maintain internal balance in the body; by transporting nutrients, protecting the body by way of certain immune cells, and by regulating body temperature, and maintaining fluid/electrolyte balance.
What is blood composed of? Plasma and formed elements (cells).
What is plasma? Clear, straw colored, liquid potrion of blood in which cells are suspended.
What percentage of plasma is water? Approximately 90%.
How much of the total blood volume is plasma? Approximately 55%.
What are erythrocytes? Red blood cells that carry oxygen.
Where do erythrocytes develop? In the bone marrow.
What are leukocytes? White blood cells that combat infection and respond to inflammation.
What do leukocytes include? Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes.
What are platelets? Thrombocytes. One of the formed elements in the blood that is responsible for the formation of clots.
What is serum? Clear, watery fluid that remains after a clot has formed.
What is the function of the lymphatic system? To return excessive tissue fluid to the blood, absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins from the small intestine for transport, and to provide defense against infection.
What is lymph? Transparent, colorless tissue fluid that is called lymph AFTER it has entered the lymphatic system. Flows in a one way direction toward the heart.
What does lymph contain? Lymphocytes and monocytes.
What are lymphatic vessels? Vessels that transport lymph from tissues to the chest. Begin as capillaries throughout the body and merge to form larger tubes and eventually ducts in the chest, where they empty into the vena cava.
What are lymph nodes? Small, spherical bodies of lymph tissue. They filter lymph and produce lymphocytes.
Where is the spleen located? In the left side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and the diaphragm.
What is the spleen? The largest lymph organ in adulthood, and is responsible for filtering the blood and destroying old blood cells.
What is the thymus gland. One of the primary lymphatic organs.
Where is the thymus gland located? Anterior to the ascending aorta and posterior to the sternum.
What does the thymus gland do? It plays an important role in the development of the immune system, particularlyfrom infancy to puberty.
Angi/o Vessel (usually blood)
Aort/o Aorta
Arteri/o Artery
Atri/o Atrium
Cardi/o Heart
Lymphaden/o Lymph node
Lymph/o Lymph, lymph tissue
Myel/o Bone marrow
Pleb/o Veins
Ven/o Veins
Plasm/o Plasma
Splen/o Spleen
Thym/o Thymus gland
Valv/o Valve
Valvul/o Valve
Ventricul/o Ventricle
Ather/o Yellowish, fatty plaque
Ech/o sound
Electr/o electricity, electrical activity
Isch/o deficiency, blockage
Thromb/o clot
Brady fast
Tachy slow
-apheresis removal
-graph instrument used to record
-odynia pain
-penia abnormal reduction in number
-poiesis formation
-sclerosis hardening
Angioma tumor composed of blood vessels
Angiostenosis narrowing of the blood vessels
Aortic stenosis narrowing of the aorta
Arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries
Atherosclerosis hardening of the fatty plaque on the artery walls
Bradycardia slow heart rate
Cardiodynia pain in the heart
Cardiomegaly enlargement of the heart
Cardiovalvulitis inflammation of the valves of the heart
Endocarditis inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
Ischemia deficiency of blood
Myocarditis inflammation of the middle layer (muscle) of the heart
Pericarditis inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart
Phlebitis inflammation of a vein
Polyarteritis inflammation of many sites in the arteries
Tachycardia rapid heart rate
Thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein associated with a clot
Hematoma tumor of pooled blood resulting from a broken vessel
Multiple myeloma tumors of the bone marrow
Pancytopenia abnormal reduction of all blood cells
Thrombosis abnormal condition of a blood clot
Thrombus clot (attached to the interior wall of a blood vessel)
Lymphadenitis inflammation of the lymph nodes
Lymphadenopathy disease of the lymph nodes
Lymphoma tumor of lymphatic tissue (malignant)
Splenomegaly enlargement of the spleen
Thymoma tumor of the thymus gland
Acute coronary syndrome sudden symptoms of insufficient blood to the heart
Aneurism ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall
Angina pectoris chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is insufficient blood to the heart
Arrhythmia any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal pattern
Atrial fibrillation a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by chaotic, rapid electrical impulses in the atria. The atria quivers instead of contracting. Reduces output of blood, and the blood left in the atria becomes static, increasing risks for clot and stroke
PAF paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. intermittent
CAF chronic atrial fibrillation. sustained
Cardiac arrest sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation. requires CPR
Cardiac tamponade acute compression of the heart caused by excess fluid in the pericardial space
Coarctation of the aorta congenital condition of the narrowing of the aorta
Congenital heart disease heart abnormality present at birth
Congestive heart failure inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body
Coronary artery disease CAD. condition that reduced blood flow through the coronary arteries and, as a result, weakens the myocardium. most often caused by coronary artheriosclerosis (heart failure)
Coronary occlusion obstruction of the coronary arteries
Deep vein thrombosis thrombus in a deep vein, usually in the legs. the clot can break off and travel, which could lead to a pulmonary embolism.
Hypertensive heart disease HHD. disorder of the heart brought on by persistent high blood pressure
Intermittent claudication pain and discomfort of calf muscles when walking. seen in occlusive artery disease.
Mitral valve stenosis narrowing of the mitral valve from scaring, usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever
Myocardial infarction death of a portion of the myocardium caused by a lack of oxygen due to interrupted blood supply (heart attack)
Peripheral artery disease PAD. disease of arteries other than those of the heart and brain, affecting circulation.
Rheumatic heart disease damage to the heart of valves caused by episodes of rheumatic fever
Varicose veins distended or torturous veins usually found in lower extremities
Anemia reduction in the amount of hemoglobin in the RBCs
Embolus blood clot or foreigh material that enters the blood stream and moves until it is lodged
Hemophilia inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII
Leukemia malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in WBC production in the bone marrow
Hodgkin disease malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes
Infections mononucleosis acute infection caused by Epstein-Barr virus. characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fever.
Angioplasty surgical repair of a blood vessel
Atherectomy excision of fatty plaque
Endarterectomy excision of plaque from within an artery. usually named for the artery in question
Pericardiocentesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the outer layer (pericardial sac)
Phlebectomy excision of a vein
Phlebotomy incision into a vein (to give or recieve blood, also called venipuncture)
Valvuloplasty surgical repair of a valve (cardiac or venous)
Splenectomy excision of the spleen
Splenopexy surgical fixation of the spleen
Thymectomy excision of the thymus gland
Aneurysmectomy surgical excision of an aneurism
Atrial fibrillation ablation a procedure where abnormal cells that cause A-fib are destroyed using radiofrequency energy
Cardiac pacemaker battery-powered device implanted under the skin with leads placed on or inside the heart
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgical technique to bring new blood supply to the heart by bypassing blocked arteries
Coronary stent supporting scaffold device implanted in the artery to prevent closure after angioplasty
Embolectomy surgical removal of an embolus
Femoropopliteal bypass surgery to establism an alternate route from the femoral to popliteal artery to bypass an obstruction
Implantable cardiac defribrillator (ICD) device implanted that constantly monitors heart rhythm and delivers a shock to correct life-threatening arrhythmias
Intracoronary thrombolytic therapy injection of medication to dissolve blood clots in the coronary vessels
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) inflation of a balloon inserted into the artery to compress plaque
Bone marrow aspiration aspiration of a sample of the liquid portion of bone marrow for study
Bone marrow biopsy needle puncture to obtain a sample of bone marrow
Bone marrow transplant infusion of normal bone marrow from a donoe to a recipient with leukemia or anemia
Angiography radiographic imaging of blood vessels
Angioscope instrument used for visual examination of the blood vessels
Angioscopy visual examination of the blood vessels
Aortogram radiographic image of the aorta
Arteriogram radiographic image of an artery
Venogram radiographic image of a vein
Venography radiographic imaging of a vein
Echocardiogram (ECHO) record of the heart using sound
Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) record of the electrical activity of the heart
Electrocardiograph instrument used to record the electrical activity of the heart
Electrocardiography process of recording the electrical activity of the heart
Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) a process of digital radiographic imaging of blood vessels that removes structures not being studied.
Doppler ultrasound a study that uses sound for detection of blood flow through vessels
Exercise stress test a study that evaluates cardiac function during physical activity
Single-photon emission computed sonography (SPECT) nuclear medicine scan that visualized the heart from several different angles that can be used to assess damage to cardiac tissue
Thallium test thallium is injected through an IV and is absorbed by normal cardiac cells. Ischemia and infarction do not take up thallium, so these appear as "cold spots"
Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) ultrasound test to examine cardiac function by an ultrasound probe in the espohagus
Cardiac catheterization an eamination to determine the condition of the heart and surrounding blood vessels
Impedance plethysmography (IPG) measures venous flow of the extremities to detect clots by measuring pressure changes
Auscultation hearing sounds within the body through a stethoscope
Blood pressure pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel walls
Percussion tapping of a body surface to determine the density of the part beneath
Pulse the number of times in one minute that the heart beat is felt on an arterial wall
Sphygmomanometer device used for measuring blood pressure
Stethoscope instrument used to hear internal body sounds
C-reactive protein (CRP) blood test to measure C reactive protein which may indicate inflammation in the body
Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) blood test for levels of creatine phosphokinase levels to evaluate patients with acute MI
Homocysteine blood test to measure for elevated levels of homocysteine, which may indicate risk for cardiovascular disease
Lipid profile blood test used to evaluate the risk for developing cardiovascular disease. results give levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides
Troponin blood test used to detect troponin, which is released after an MI
Coagulation time blood test to determine the time it takes for a clot to form
Complete blood count (CBC) and differential count (Diff) basic blood screening that measures hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell number and morphology, leukocyte count, white blood cell differential (types found/number) and platelets
Hematocrit (HCT) a blood test to measure the volume and number of red blood cells, used to diagnose and evaluate anemia
Hemoglobin (Hgb) blood test to determine the concentration of oxygen-carrying components of red blood cells
Prothrombine time (PT) blood test to determine coagulation activity defects and to monitor anticoagulation therapy for patients on Coumadin
Atrioventricular pertaining to the atrium and ventricle
Cardiac pertaining to the heart
Cardiogenic originating in the heart
Cardiologist physician who studies and treats diseases of the heart
Cardiology study of the heart
Hypothermia condition of low body temperature
Intravenous pertaining to within a vein
Phlebotomist physician who studies and treats diseases of the vein
Phlebology study of the veins
Hematologist physician who studies and treats diseasesof the blood
Hematology study of blood
Hematopoesis formation of blood cells
Hemolysis dissolution of red blood cells
Hemostasis stoppage of bleeding
Myelopoesis formation of bone marrow
Plasmapheresis removal of plasma from within blood
Thrombolysis dissolution of a clot
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emergency procedure consisting of artificial ventilation and external cardiac massage
Defribillation application of electric shock to the myocardium through the chest wall to restore normal cardiac rhythm
Diastole phase in the cardiac cycle where the ventricles relax between contractions
Extracorporeal occuring outside the body, such as an extracorporeal circulation through the use of a heart-lung machine during open heart surgery
Extravasation escape of blood from the blood vessels into the tissues
Fibrillation rapid, quivering, non-coordinated contractions of the atria and/or ventricles
Heart murmur a short-duration humming sound of cardiac or vascular origin
Hypercholesterolemia excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood
Hyperlipidemia excessive amount of fats in the blood
Hypertension blood pressure that is above normal (>140/90)
Hypertriglyceridemia excessive amount of triglycerides in the blood
Hypotension blood pressure that is below normal (<90/60)
Lipids fats and fat-like substances
Lumen space within a tubular organ
Occlude to close tightly, or block
Systole Phase of the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles constrict
Vasoconstrictor agent or nerve that narrows the blood vessel
Vasodilator agent or nerve that enlarges the blood vessel
Venipuncture puncture of a vein to remove blood, instill medication, or start an IV infusion
Anticoagulant agent that slows the clotting process
Dyscrasia abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood
Hemmorrhage rapid loss of blood
Allergen environmental substance capable of producing an immediate hypersensitivity in the body
Allergist physician who studies and treats allergic reactions
Anaphylaxis an exaggerated, life-threatening reaction to to a previously encountered antigen (can lead to anaphylactic shock)
Antibiotic a drug that targets microorganisms to kill or halt growth/replication
Antibodies a substance produced by lymphocytes that inactivates or destroys antigens (also called immunoglobulins)
Antigen a substance that triggers an immune reaction when introduced into the body
Autoimmune disease a disease caused by the body's inability to distinguish its own cells from foreign bodies
Immune being resistant to a specific invading pathogen
Immunodeficiency deficient immune response caused by the immune system dysfunction brought on by disease (such as HIV) or immune-suppressive drugs (prednisone)
Immunologist physician who studies and treats immune system disorders
Immunology branch of medicine dealing with immune system disorders
Infection the invasion of pathogens into the body, may be localized or systemic
Phagocytosis process by which white blood cells destroy invading microorganisms
Vaccine a suspension of inactivated microorganisms administered by injection, mouth, or nasal spray to induce immunity
ACS acute coronary syndrome
A-fib atrial fibrillation
AV atrioventricular
BP blood pressure
CABG coronary artery bypass graft
CBC and Diff complete blood count and differential
CCU coronary care unit
CHF congestive heart failure
CPK creatine phosphokinase
CPR cardiopulmonary rescusitation
CRP c-reactive protein
DSA digital subtraction angiography
DVT deep vein thrombosis
ECG, EKG electrocardiogram
ECHO echocardiogram
HCT hematocrit
Hgb hemoglobin
HHD hypertensive heart disease
ICD implantable cardiac defibrillator
IPG impedence plethysomography
IV intravenous
MI myocardial infarction
PAD peripheral artery disease
PT prothrombine time
PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
RBC red blood cell
SPECT single-photon emission computed tomography
TEE transesophageal echocardiogram
WBC white blood cell
Created by: 5030831