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Social Psych (16)

Psych 111: Intro to Psych

examines the influence of social processes on the way people think, feel, and behave. Social Psychology
advertising deal with ______ Social Psychology
a "+" or "-" evaluative reaction towards a person, object, or concept. Attitudes
durability or impact of an attitude. Attitude Strength
if it lasts over time. Durability
if it impacts behavior and thoughts (whether it alters behavior). Impact
initial perceptions makes a difference; have shown strong effects. Initial Impressions
Asch's study found that a person presented with a list of "+" traits first was found to be more sociable and happier than a person presented with a list of "-" traits first. Social Cognition
presence of others energizes performance; if more people are around, behavior is different. Social Influence
studied ant behavior; if ant were surrounded by other ants they carried more dirt compared to when they were alone. Triplett
studied bike races; run faster when running against someone else. Triplett
shared expectations about thoughts, feelings, and behavior; can vary by time and place; culturally sensitive. Social Norms
Example: someone walking around in a kilt isn't "acceptable" in the U.S. compared to in Scotland. Social Norms
a set of norms which characterize how people in specific social positions should behave. Social Role
Example: wouldn't be normal for Shelly to frisk a student, compared to if a police officer did that. Social Role
norms accompanying different roles may clash. Role Conflict
student, member of club, sorority member, daughter -- roles can clash (often common for working parents, sick child, expected to stay home and care for kid, but also have a job to teach students material that is on the exam). Role Conflict
adjustment of people's behavior, attitudes, and beliefs to a group. Conformity
follow the opinions of those we believe have accurate knowledge and beleive they are doing right. Informational Social Influence
Example: when lost and someone says "go this way" and the person doesn't know where they are either, or when a professor tells you to put your hand on your head. Informational Social Influence
conform to obtain rewards that come from being accepted by other people while trying to avoid rejection. Normative Social Influence
Example: booing people when they don't continue the wave at the football games; passing the football out of the stadium, why do we follow it? no one knows. Normative Social Influence
see others engaging in a behavior, likely to be influenced by it. Situational Influence on Behaviors
Example: signing a petition, usually not the 1st person to sign it, the more names on it, the more likely it is that others will sign it too. Situational Influence on Behaviors
Example: people dancing the waltz in the supermarket. Situational Influence on Behaviors
join a room thinking you are 1 of 7 subjects and asked to compare lines. when alone people always got it right. when in groups they are likely to give wrong answers so that they stay with the group (even though answer is obvious). Asch Conformity Study
when people were alone they got answer right. in a groupo only 20% appeared to remain completely independent in their responses. Asch Conformity Study
group size + presence of a dissenter factors that affectd Conformity
conformity increased from 5-35% as group size increased. After 5 wrong people, this stabilized (more wrong people up to 5, increased conformity). Group Size
when someone else dissents they serve as a model and it significantly reduces conformity. doesn't go along with the group. Presence of a Dissenter
attitudes don't necessarily determine/predict our behavior LaPiere Study
study:during prime of racism against Asians and 90% of restaurants claimed in a letter that they wouldn't serve Asians, yet only 1 didn't out of +250 visited. LaPiere Study
attitudes influence behavior more strongly when the counteracting situational factors are weak. Attitudes and Behavior Influntial Factors
example: less likely to get naked for $10 than for $100k. Attitudes and Behavior Influntial Factors
attitudes have a greater influence over our behavior when we're aware of them and when they are strongly held. Attitudes and Behavior Influntial Factors
general attitudes predict general behaviors and specific atttitudes predict specific behaviors. Attitudes and Behavior Influntial Factors
Example: do you stay kosher, more specifc than, do you order pepperoni pizza. Attitudes and Behavior Influntial Factors
deliberate effort to change or impact one's attitude. Persuasion
credibility, expertise, trustworthiness, likeability, attractiveness, similarity. Factor of Persuasion
fear appeal vs. logic, 1-sided vs. 2-sided argument (refute other argument), # of strong or weak arguments, repetition (doesn't even need to be true). Message Factors
in person, on tv/radio (putting a pretty woman next to a car), autotape, computer. Channel Factors
personality, expectations (forewarning), strength of preexisting attitudes, prior knowledge of the issue. Receiver Factors
golden rule; to get you to comply with a request you are given an unsolicited favor or gift. when others treat us well, we do the same. Norm of Reciprocity
Example: let us come clean 1 room in your house for free! And then try to sell you a vacuum. Norm of Reciprocity
Example: when buying a car, the saleswoman took $ out of her pocket to buy customer a drink. Norm of Reciprocity
persuader makes a large request expecting you to reject and then makes a smaller request believing you will be more likely to comply. Door in the Face Technique
ask for a little, then more and moer! a persuader gets you to comply with a small request and then presentws a larger request thinking you will now be more likely to comply. Foot in the Door
persuader gets you to commit to an action then before you peform it the "cost increases" Low-Balling
Example: can you drive me to the airport. sure. flight's at 6:00 AM. Low-Balling
Example: experiment asks students to come at 7am, got 24% consent rate. then asked another group how many would be willing to participate in study, 54% said yes (didn't know what time it was at). 95% of those who signed up showed at 7am. Low-Balling
form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in an authorative position. Obedience
what % of subjects would obey and administer shocks up to 450 volts. Stanley Milgram's Obedience to Authority Research Project
obedience was greater when the victim was out of sight. Remoteness of the Victim
whether or not someone seemed to have expertise; obedience wa higher when figure was close and seemed expert. Closeness + Legitimacy of Authority Figure
when another particiapnt in study pressed button, 93% obeyed because person didn't think that they were responsible since they didn't physically administer the shock. Cog in the Wheel
differences were weak or nonexistent. Personal Characteristics
similar results cross culturally. Cultural Differences
over 80% compliance rates in Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Holland. Milrgram's Experiment
something you couldn't repeat today because put people under too much stress. Ethnic Issues of the Research (Milgram)
helping behavior. Altruism
when other's are present the responsibility to help is divided among the present. Diffusion of Responsibility (Kitty Genovese)
people are less likely to provide help when in groups. (someone else will do it). Bystander Effect (Kitty Genovese)
people always think someone else is calling 911. Diffusion of Responsibility (Kitty Genovese)
bystander research. Latane + Darley
bystander won't help if they don't notice, decide if it's an emergency (if yes, intervene), take on responsibility (question self-efficacy + confidence), intervene regardless of cost, who are more willing to help (people similar to us, women over men). Bystander Research --- Latane + Darley
more likely to help those who we view as "true victims" Perceived Responsibility
Example: people help the man in the business suit more than they would help a homeless man. Perceived Responsibility
proximity, similarity in attitudes, values, interests, matching hypothesis. Factors that Influence Attractions to others
being near increases likelihood; availability increases attraction. Proximity
people tend to opt for those at their same level of attractiveness. Matching Hypothesis
passionate + companionate love. Walster + Berscheid
intensely emotional + physical. Passionate Love
deep affection, share emotional intimacy and friendship "wanting to talk". Companionate Love
1)Intimacy 2)Passion 3)Commitment Sternberg's 3 Components of Love
sense of closeness and sharing. Intimacy
emotional, physical. Passion
efforts to maintain the relationship with difficulties and costs. Commitment
"-" attitudes towards people based on membership in a group. Prejudice
characteristics we attribute to people based on their membership in a group. Stereotypes
impact our impressions + attributions. Prejudice + Stereotypes
treat people differently and unfairly based on group affiliation. Discrimination
we attribute our successes to personal factors and our failures to situational forces. We do opposite for others: assume others' failures are due to personal factors. Self-Serving Bias
increases prejudice. Self-Serving Bias
we categorize ourselves as "in group" or "out group" and view our members in more favorable terms. Group Membership
believe those in the "out group" are all the same, although we see the diversity within our own group. Homogeneity Bias
Example: everyone in SDT is exactly the same, but you know within the group there is lots of diversity. Homogeneity Bias
Example: working together on a common task or goal (super-ordinate goal) is an effective way to reduce in/out group conflict. work together on a common goal. Homogeneity Bias
power of situational forces + social roles. Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Study
different situations result in different behaviors. Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Study
in contrast to the self-serving bias, we assume others' failures are due to personal or internal factors. Fundamental Attribution Error
Created by: schlechy