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Midterm II

Before cells are able to reproduce, there must be a... Division of the nucleus and its DNA and cytokinesis
Mitosis is used by muliticelled organisms for... growth, development, and repair
Mitosis has what cells? Somatic cells
Meiosis occurs in which somatic cells? Germ cells
What do germ cells divide into? Gametes
Each threadlike chromosome is duplicated to form... Two sister chromatids held together by a centromere
Humans somatic cells contain __ chromosomes 46
Which cells are diploid? Somatic cells
How many chromosomes do diploid cells have? 2
What are Gametes? Egg and sperm
Which cell is haploid? Gametes
How many chromosomes do haploid cells have? 1
Most of the cells existence is spent in... Interphase
During interphase.... the cells mass increases and the DNA is duplicated
During G1 phase.... carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins for a cells use and for export are assembled.
During S phase... the cell copies it DNA and synthesizes proteins
During G2 phase... proteins that will drive mitosis to completion are produced.
What are the 4 stages of mitosis? Prophase,Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.
The spindle apparatus does what? moves the chromosomes.
What extends from the 2 poles of a cell and overlap at the cells equator? Microtubules.
Chromosomes become visible rodlike units with each having 2 sister chromatids is what stage? Prophase.
The centromere is a docking site for the spindle microtubules on each chromatid.
Microtubules are composed of.. tubulins
The nuclear envelope begins to disintegrate in which stage? Prophase
The centrioles are moved by the microtubules to the opposite poles of the cell in which phase? Prophase.
Nuclear membrane breaks up completely in which stages? Between prophase and metaphase.
Sister chromatids become oriented toward opposite poles in what stage? Metaphase.
What stage takes place when all the chromosomes are aligned at the cells equator? Metaphase
At metaphase sister chromatids are at Max. condensation
Sister chromatids separate and move toward oppostite poles during which stage? Anaphase
When the two daughter chromosomes of each original chromatid pair arrive at opposite poles, which stage is beginning? Telophase
The nuclear envelope reforms during Telophase
When each daughter cell has the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.... Telophase is done and mitosis is complete.
The flexible plasma membrance of animal cells can be squeezed in the middle to separate the two daughter cells..what is this called? cleavage or furrowing
Plant cells cannot be pinched in two because.... the rigid cell wall
Organisms that reproduce asexually rely on chromosome duplications and mitotic cell divisions
Somatic germ cells go through a type of cell division called meiosis and cytokinesis to produce gametes.
Meiosis begins with diploid germ cells(2n=46 in humans) and produces haploid gametes (n=23)
In 2n cells there are 2 chromosomes of each type called homolugous chromosomes.
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes line up, even unequally matched sex chromosomes
Meiosis produces gametes that have one of each pair of homologous chromosomes.
Meiosis has how many series of divisions 2
During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair and cytokinesis follows and each daughter cell receives a haploid number of chromosomes.
In meiosis II, the sister chromatids of each chromosome separate; cytokinesis follows resulting in 4 haploid cells.
In meiosis prophase 1, nonsister chromatids exchange segments in a process called crossing over
After crossing over, the non sister chromatids begin to separate but remain attatched by chiasmata
In meiosis metaphase I, homologous chromosomes... randomly line up at the spindle equator.
During meiosis anaphase I, homologous chromosomes... separate into two haploid cells.
In males, meiosis and gamete formation are called spermatogenesis
In females, meiosis and gamete formation are called oogenesis
Random alignments at metaphase I lead to millions of maternal and paternal chromosomes in each gamete
Chromosomes are moved by the spindle apparatus
Observable traits, like five fingers on each hand, are the result of genetic expression
The first person to systematically pursue the questions of genetic Gregor Mendel
Units of information about specific traits. Genes
Each gene has a _______ on a chromosome locus
What cells have two genes for each trait on a homologous chromosome? Diploid cells
Various molecular forms of a gene for the same trait are Alleles
Occurs when offspring inherit identical alleles true-breeding
Non-identical alleles produce hybrid offspring
When both alleles are the same, this is called Homozygous condition
If the alleles differ then its Heterozygous condition
When one allele is dominate A and the other is recessive a its... heterozygous
When both alleles are dominate AA its.... Homozygous dominant
aa= homozygous recessive
Aa= heterozygous
The sum of the genes are the genotype
Genes that are expressed by what you observe are the phenotype
P= Parental generation
F1= first-generation offspring
F2= second-generation offspring.
What has two parents that are true-breeding for contrasting forms of a trait Monohybrid
Mendel disproved the blending model
What theory states that 2n organisms inherit two genes per trait located on pairs of homologous chromosomes The Mendelian theory
Chromosomes segregate independently of each other and give the same F2 phenotypic ratio Mendel observed are... non homologous
A dominant allele that cannot completely mask the expression of another incomplete dominance
A case where both dominant alleles are expressed in heterozygotes. Codominance
Whenever more than two forms of alleles exist at a given locus is a multiple allele system
Alleles at one location that can have have effects on two or more traits is called termed pleiotropy
One gene pair can influence other gene pairs, with the combined activities producing some effect on the phenotype..this is called.. epistasis
Most of the chromosomes are of the same quantity and type in both sexes and are called Autosomes
Sex chromosomes 92 in humans) determine gender
What chromosomes do females have? two X chromosomes
What chromosomes do males have? one x and one y
Chromosomes that are visualized in a lab preparation is called a karyotype
A term applied to a genetic condition that is a deviation from the usual, or average, and is not life threatening. Genetic abnormality
Used to describe conditions that cause medical problems. Genetic disorder
Applied to those instances where a persons altered genes increase susceptibility to infection Genetic disease.
The dominant allele is nearly always expressed autosomal dominant
Either parent can carry the recessive allele on an autosome autosomal recessive
This occurs when a gene sequence is in excess of the normal amount duplication
This alters the position and sequence of the genes so that gene order is reversed inversion
A condition in which the gametes or cells of an affected individual end up with one extra or one less chromosome than is normal Aneuploidy
The presence of three or more of each type of chromosome in gametes or cells Polyploidy
Anaphase I or anaphase II frequently results in a change in chromosome number due to nondisjunction
Consists if a single layer of cells Simple epithelium
Supports epithelia and organs and surrounds blood vessels and nerves Loose connective tissue
Could be found in tendons and ligaments Dense connective tissue
What contains chondrocytes and a dense array of fibers in a jelly like ground substance? Cartilage
What stores mineral salts, produces blood cells, and provides spaces for its own living osteocytes Bone tissue
Cells that are specialized for the storage of fat, which can be used as an energy reserve and as cushions to pad organs Adipose tissue
Transports oxygen, wastes, hormones, and enzymes blood
contracts in response to stimulation muscle tissue
Created by: brittneyyc