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Midterm 2

What is sensation? Process of receiving information about the external and internal world
What is perception? To impose meaningful interpretations on the information sensation provides
Wavelength of light energy is the perception of: Hue (colour)
Amplitude of light energy is the perception of: Brightness (intensity)
Purity of light energy is the perception of: Saturation
Nearsightedness: Can see close things (focus point in front of retina)
Farsightedness: Can see far things (focus point behind retina)
Rods: Sensitive to light. Responsible for poor lighting conditions and peripheral vision. Not sensitive to colour.
Cones: Sensitive to colour. Responsible for vision in good lighting conditions and focus vision at the center of the visual field.
Amount of light determines rate of firing in: (These cells send this info on to the brain) Ganglion cells
Colour blindness is: A genetic variation that leads one or more of the three cone types to be missing.
Most common colour blindness is: Distinguishing red from green
Opponent-Process Cells Increase firing rate when exposed to wavelength for one colour but decrease firing rate when exposed to wavelength of a different colour
Bottom-Up Processing 1. Detect specific features of stimulus 2. Combine specific features into more complex forms 3. Recognize stimulus
Top-Down Processing 1. Formulate perceptual hypothesis about the nature of the stimulus as a whole 2. Select and examine features to check hypothesis 3. Recognize stimulus
Depth perception: Image projected on retina is 2D, perception is 3D (illusion created by brain)
Convergence Binocular. Eyes point more inward to bring close objects into focus
Retinal Disparity Binocular. Difference in the perceived separation of two objects by the left and the right eye
Interposition Monocular. Closer things obscure farther things
Linear Perspective Monocular. Parallel lines are perceived as closer together when farther away
Motion Parallax Monocular. When one is moving, far objects appear to move more slowly than near objects
Texture Gradient Monocular. Objects seem more clustered together if farther away
Relative Size Monocular. Objects that project a smaller image on the retina seem farther away
Relative Clarity Monocular. Far objects will be perceived as more blurry than close objects
Shape Constancy Viewing angle changes the shape of an object's image on the retina but we don't perceive its shape as changing
Location Constancy As we move, location of the retinal image an object projects changes, but we don't perceive changes in its location
Size Constancy An object's retinal image gets smaller as it moves farther away but we don't perceive object as getting smaller
Brightness Constancy Amount of light reflected by an object changes constantly with the amount of light in the environment, but we don't perceive in object brightness
Colour Constancy Wavelength of light projected by an object changes with the amount of light "out there" but we don't perceive the object as changing in colour
Amplitude of sound waves is the perception of: Loudness
Frequency of sound waves is the perception of: Pitch
Complexity of sound waves is the perception of: Timbre
Pinna: Helps tunnel sounds into ear
Eardrum: Vibrates three bones (stirrup, anvil, hammer) with same amplitude and frequency
Cochlea: Contains cilia that sit on top of basilar membrane.
Inner Ear to Brain: Cilia press against membrane initiating signals about sound frequency and amplitude to be sent to the brain via the auditory nerve
Taste receptors are in: The taste buds which are in the Papillae on the tongue
Basic tastes are: Salty, sour, bitter, sweet, umami
Factors that determine taste: (4) 1. Unique combination of basic tastes 2. Temperature 3. Texture 4. Smell
Smell goes to brain via: The olfactory nerve. (Sent to the brain's olfactory bulb)
Created by: umpilome
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