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Pharmacy Physiology

QuestionAnswer
two divisions of the nervous system CNS
PNS composed of to types of neurons afferent & efferent
Afferent neurons input signals to the CNS (affect what will happen next)
Efferent neurons output signals to periphery (effecting change – movement, secrestion, etc.)
PNS divided into Somatic and autonomic nervous system
Somatic nervous system controls skeletal muscle
Autonomic nervous system has two branches; sympathetic and parasympathetic
Sympathetic controls emergency branch
Parasympathetic controls rest and digest branch
Dendrites receive information typically from neurotransmitters
Dendrites undergo graded potentials
Axons undergo action potentials to deliver information, typically neurotransmitters from xaon terminals
Which neurons conduct action potentials most rapidly myelinated neurons
Myelin sheath is collection of Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes that are closely associated with the neuron
Neuronal pathways include presynaptic, postsynaptic, and interneuronal
All interneurons are located in the CNS
This describes what: Transmit information into the central nervous system from receptors at their peripheral endings Afferent Neurons
This describes what: Cell body and the long peripheral process of the axon are in the peripheral nervous stem; only the short central process of the axon eneters the central nervous system Afferent neurons
This describes what: Have not dendrites (do not receive inputs from other neurons) Afferent neurons
What type of neuron are the Primary Sensory Neurons (DRG) Afferent neurons
Spinal and cranial nerve sensory fibers are afferent neurons
Sensory receptors don’t have this neural cell component dendrites
Sensory receptors are an example of this neuron afferent neuron
This describes what: Transmit information out of the central nervous system to effector cells, particularly muscles, glands, or other neurons Effector neurons
This describes what: Cell body, dendrites, and a small segment of the axon are in the central nervous system effector neurons
This describes what: most of the axon is in the peripheral nervous system efferent neurons
This describes what which class of neuron: motor (upper/lower) neurons efferent neurons
This describes which class of neurons: spinal/cranial nerves efferent neurons
This describes what: Function as integrators and signal changers interneurons
This describes what: integrate groups of afferent and efferent neurons into reflex circuits interneurons
This describes what: lie entirely within the central nervous system interneurons
This describes what: Acount for 99% of all neurons interneurons
This describes what: CNS integration pathways (sensory/motor) interneurons
The class of neurons respond to afferent pathways Interneurons
What deliver information in toe form of neurotransmitters Presynaptic membranes
What receives information because they have receptors for neurotransmitters postsynaptic membranes
True or False: A singe neuron postsynaptic to one cell can be presynaptic to another cell True
Potential difference difference in electrical charge between two points
Like charges repulse each other; Unlike charges attracts is known as what the electrostatic gradient principles
Membrane potential dexcribes electrical difference between the fluid inside and outside the cell
Resting membrane potential has uneven ion distribution; is cell dependent; “-“ intarcellular/extracellular environment; present in all cells (electrochemical gradient)
True/False: A large shell of charge difference is needed to establish a membrane potential False
Equilibrium Potential of an ion reflects Transmembrane concentration; no net movement; equal PD forces.
Establishment of the resting membrane potential is established by which pump Na+/K+ pump
The pump uses up to __% of the ATP produced by the cell 40%
The intracellular portion is positive or negative negative
The extracellular portion is positive or negative postitive
Decreasing the ATP increases or decreases the membrane potential decreases (less negative)
True/False: The Na+/K+ pump does not require ATP False
Each ATP is hydrolyzed to operate the ion pump and allows __ Na+ to __ and __ K+ to __ the cell 3 Na+ to exit and 2 K+ to enter the cell
Depolarization occurs when ion movement reduces the charge imbalance
Depolarization results in active or passive loss of energy passive
Depolarization is a movement in membrane potential toward positive or negative positive
Overshoot refers to the development of a charge reversal
Repolarizing is movement back toward the resting potential
Repolarization is active or passive active (requires ATP)
Hyperpolarization is the development of even more negative charge inside the cell
Why does hyperpolarization occur because it takes time to stop repolarizing
Resting Potential is around __ -70 mV Potential = potential difference definition
Membrane potential = transmembrane potential the voltage difference between the inside and the outside of a cell
Equilibrium potential the voltage difference across a membrane that produces a flux of a given ion species that is equal but opposite to the flux due to the concentration gradient of tha same ion species
Resting membrane potential = resting potential the steady transmembrane potential of a cell that is not producing an electric signal
Graded potential A potential change of variable amplitude and duration that is conducted decrementally
What has no threshold or refractory period Graded potential
What has a threshold and refractory period Action potential
Action potential a brief all-or-none depolarization of the membrane, reversing polarity in neurons
Synaptic potential A graded potential change produced in the postsynaptic neuron in response to the release of a neurotransmitter by a presynaptic terminal
What potential may be depolarizing or hyperpolarizing Synaptic potential
Receptor potential a graded potential produced at the peripheral ending of afferent neurons (or in separate receptor cells) in response to a stimulus
Pacemaker potential a spontaneously occurring graded potential change tha occurs in certain specialized cells
Threshold potential membrane potential at which an action potential is initiated
True/False: Graded potential size is propotianate to the intensity of the stimulus True
Can graded potentials be Excitatory, Inhibitory Both Exitatory or Inhibitory
Excitatory responses have the action potential more or less likely more
Inhibitory responses have the action potential more or less likely less
True/False: The size of a graded potential proportional to the size of the stimulus True Graded potentials include
Action or graded potentials have a threshold Action
Action or graded potentials have no decremental propagation Action
Action or graded potentials exhibit an all or none phenomenon Action
Which voltage gate, Na or K opens faster Na
Action or Graded potentials decay as they move over a distance Graded
Which voltage gate leads to the repolarization after hyperpolarization K
True/False: The amplitude of a gnereated action potential is constant in any neuron type True
Threshold stimulus allows inward movement of “+” charges
Acton potentials require suprathreshold stimulus; Na influx > K efflux
True/False: The propagation of the action potential from the dendritic to the axon-terminal end typically one-way True
Why is the action potential propagation typically one-way because the absolute refractory period follows along in the “wake” of the moving action potential
Saltatorial Conduction Action potentials jump from one node to the next as they propagate along a myelinated axon
Why do action potentials move rapidly along myelinated axons because only the parts of the neuronal membrane that undergo ion movements are the sections at the Nodes of Ranvier.
Action potentials travel faster in large myelinated fibers
What has the amplitude vary with donditions of the initiating event Graded Potential
What potential can be summed Graded Potential
What potential’s duration varies with initiating conditions Graded Potential
What potential can be a depolarization Graded or Action Potential
What potential can be a hyperpolarization Graded Potential
What potential can be initiated by environmental stimulus, by neurotransmitter, or spontaneously Graded Potential
What potential’s mechanism depends on ligand-sensitive channes or other chemical or physical changes Graded Potential
What potential cannot be summed Action Potential
What potential has a threshold that is usually about 15mV depolarized relative to the resting potential Action Potential
What potential has a refractory period Action Potential
What potential is conducted without decrement Action potential
What potential has the depolarization amplified to a constant value at each point along the membrane Action potential
What potential has a duration that is constant for a given cell type under constant conditions Action potential
What potential is only a depolarization Action Potential
What potential is initiated by a graded potential Action potential
What potential depends on voltage-gated channels Action potential
Four primary neurons communicate to one secondary neuron is an example of Convergence
One primary neuron communicates to four secondary neurons is an example of Divergence
__ is the point of communication between two neurons that operate sequentially the synapse
Int the axon terminal, the neurotransmitters empty into the synaptic cleft
Neurotransmitters bid to the receptors on what after being deposited to the synaptic cleft postsynaptic cell (typically a dendrite)
C++ channels are opened by Action potentials propogated from Na and K voltage-gated channels
Ca++ influx triggers neurotransmitter release into the synaptic cleft
Binding of neurotransmitters to receptor proteins in the postsynaptic membrane is linked to an alteration in its ion permeability
An excitatory postsynaptic potential is a graded depolarization that moves the membrane potential closer to the threshold for firing an action potential
An inhibitory postsynaptic potential is a graded hyperpolarization that moves the membrane potential farther from the threshold for firing an action potential
Threshold refers to the minimum graded depolarization that initiates the cyclic activity of the voltage-gated Na andK channesl resulting in the initiation of an action potential
True/False: the membrane potential of a real neuron typically undergoes many EPSPs and IPSPs True
True/ False: The membrane can receive both excitatory and inhibitory input from the axon terminals that reach it constantly True
Real neurons receive as many as __ terminals 200,000
Motor neurons (UMN/LMN), parasympathetic, and pregangliotic sympathetic neuron terminals all utilize __ as a pre-synaptic neurotransmitter agent ACH
True/False: Possible drug effects on synaptic effectiveness includes release and degradation of the neurotransmitter inside the axon terminal true
True/False: Possible drug effects on synaptic effectiveness includes released and degradation of the neurotransmitter outside the axon terminal False
True/False: Possible drug effects on synaptic effectiveness includes increased neurotransmitter release into the synapse True True/False: Possible drug effects on synaptic effectiveness includes prevention of neurotransmitter release into the synapse
True/False: Possible drug effects on synaptic effectiveness includesinhibition of synthesis of the neurotransmitter True True/False: Possible drug effects on synaptic effectiveness includes Increased reuptake of the neurotransmitter from the synapse
True/False: Possible drug effects on synaptic effectiveness includes decreased reuptake of the neurotransmitter from the synapse True
True/False: Possible drug effects on synaptic effectiveness includes increased degradation of the neurotransmitter in the synapse False
True/False: Possible drug effects on synaptic effectiveness includes reduced degradation of the neurotransmitter in the synapse True
True/False: Possible drug effects on synaptic effectiveness includes reduced biochemical response inside the dendrite True
True/False: Possible drug effects on synaptic effectiveness includes increased biochemical response inside the dendrite False
Pre/Post/ or general synaptic factor determine synaptic strength: Availability of neurotransmitter Presynaptic Factor
Pre/Post/ or general synaptic factor determine synaptic strength: Availabity of precursor molecules Presynaptic Factor
Pre/Post/ or general synaptic factor determine synaptic strength: Amound of the rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway for the neurotransmitter synthesis Presynaptic Factor
Pre/Post/ or general synaptic factor determine synaptic strength: Axon terminal membrane potential Presynaptic Factor
Pre/Post/ or general synaptic factor determine synaptic strength: Axon terminal calcium Presynaptic Factor
Pre/Post/ or general synaptic factor determine synaptic strength: Activation of membrane receptors on presynaptic terminal Presynaptic Factor
Pre/Post/ or general synaptic factor determine synaptic strength: immediate past history of electrical stat of postsynaptic membrane Postsynaptic Factors
Pre/Post/ or general synaptic factor determine synaptic strength: effects of other neurotransmitters or neuromodulators acting on postsynaptic neuron Postsynaptic Factor
Pre/Post/ or general synaptic factor determine synaptic strength: Up- or down-regulation and desensitization of receptors Postsynaptic factors
Pre/Post/ or general synaptic factor determine synaptic strength: certain drugs and diseases Postsynaptic factor
Pre/Post/ or general synaptic factor determine synaptic strength: area of synaptic contact general factor
Pre/Post/ or general synaptic factor determine synaptic strength: Enzymatic destruction of neurotransmitter General factor
Pre/Post/ or general synaptic factor determine synaptic strength: Geometry of diffusion path General factor
Pre/Post/ or general synaptic factor determine synaptic strength: Neurotransmitter reuptake general factor
Examination of the laminated organization of neurons and other cells in the cerebral cortex reveals _ layers involved int eh integration of afferent and efferent signals six
Name the fuctions of the limbic system Learning; emotion; appetite (visceral function); sex; endocrine integration
Afferent neurons go through what part of the nerves dorsal root ganglion
Efferent neurons go through what part of the nerves ventral root
True/False: many systems receive “dual” innervations (both sypothetic and parasympathetic) True
Is the following a location of reception for Acetylcholine or Norepinephrine and epinephrine: Nicotinic Receptors Acetylcholine
Is the following a location of reception for Acetylcholine or Norepinephrine and epinephrine: Muscarinic receptors Acetylcholine
Is the following a location of reception for Acetylcholine or Norepinephrine and epinephrine: On postganglionic neurons in the autonomic ganglia Acetylcholine
Is the following a location of reception for Acetylcholine or Norepinephrine and epinephrine: At neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscles Acetylcholine
Is the following a location of reception for Acetylcholine or Norepinephrine and epinephrine: On some central nervous system neurons Acetylcholine and norepinephrine and epinephrine
Is the following a location of reception for Acetylcholine or Norepinephrine and epinephrine: On Smooth muscle Acetylcholine and norepinephrine and epinephrine
Is the following a location of reception for Acetylcholine or Norepinephrine and epinephrine: On cardiac muscle Acetylcholine and norepinephrine and epinephrine
Is the following a location of reception for Acetylcholine or Norepinephrine and epinephrine: On gland cells Acetylcholine and norepinephrine and epinephrine
Is the following a location of reception for Acetylcholine or Norepinephrine and epinephrine: on some neurons of autonomic ganglia Acetylcholine
__ depends on neural activity being specifically influenced by particular stimulus Sensory transduction
True/False: All sensory receptors are responsive to physical or chemical environmental stimuli True
True/False: All sensory receptors are responsive to Transduction of enery into electrical impulses True
True/False: All sensory receptors are responsive to located at peripheral nerve ending or as specialized receptor cells True
__ occurs when stimuli alter membrane potentials in specialized receptor cells Sensory transduction
True/False: Receptor cells of sensory transduction consist of only afferent neurons False (both afferent neurons and some which communicate with afferent neurons
Receptor adaptation results in diminished AP propagation
A reduction in response (the number of action potentials) in response to the continuous presence of a stimulus is Receptor Adaptation
What mechanism helps prevent sensory overload receptor adaptation
Activity in a sensory unit is altered by peripheral events
The number of action potentials generated by a senory afferent neuron is directly proportional to stimulus intensity
If a stimulus occurs in an area of receptive field that has greater density of nerve indings, it is predicted the stimulus will generate a __ number of action potentials greater
Overlapping stimulation between neighboring receptive fields provides general information about the location of a stimulus
Sesory adaptation represents the __ influences of sensory cortex on primary sensory neuron stimulus sensitivity negative feedback
CNS activity can screen out certain types of sensory information by inhibiting neurons in the afferent pathway
Neural processing of specific sensory inputs via CNS pathways occurs at specialized locations in the brain
What path contains Pain & Temperature conduction, with touch contributions spinothalamic Tracts
Non-specific pathways provide background information about touch and temperature from periphery
All ascending pathways except those involved in smell, synapse in the __ on their way to the cortex
Ascending pathways are subject to descending controls
Specific types of mechanosensory stimulation are transduced by specific types of receptor cells
A tactile corpuscle that responds to light touch Meissner’s corpuscle
A tactile corpuscle that responds to touch Merkle’s corpuscles
Merkle receptor cells respond to touch
Meissner receptor cells respond to Light touch
Free nerve ending respond to pain
Lamellated corpuscles that respond to deep pressure Pacinian corpuscle
Ruffini corpuscles respond to warmth
Pacinian corpuscles repond to deep pressure.
CNS processes can reduce pain perception by altering neural transmission
True/False: Afferent pain pathways differ from afferent non-pain pathways True
Afferent Pain pathways heads up what part of the spinal cord anterolater column
Non-pain afferent pathways travel up dorsal column of spinal cord
True/False: The Dorsal column system has signals transfer through the brainstem nucleus True
True/False: The anterolateral system has signals that transfer through the brainstem nucleus False
True/False: The Anterolateral and dorsal afferent pathways both stop in the thalamus of the brain True
Fovea cluster is part of what sense vision (they’re the rods)
Retinal distrbutuion refers to cones
Hair receptors are found on basilar membrane
Hair receptors respond to vibratory frequency changes through endolymph fluids
Taste is passed along through what chemoreceptors filliform and folate
True/False: Graded Potentials do not decay over distance False
True/False: Possible drug effects on synaptic effectiveness includes agonsists or antagonists can occupy the receptors True
Created by: css352