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Nutrition Ch 24

Nutrition & Severe Stress

List some examples of severe stress Burns, Infection, and Trauma
What happens to the body during fasting? Body conserve protein, the metabolic rate decreases, call adapt to using ketones for energy
What happens to the body during stress? Metabolic rate stays high and body break down protein for fuel
Effect of malnutrition and severe stress Unable to maintain a successful stress response and higher risk of death
Chronic Malnutrition Depleted fat stores and lean body mass, blood proteins & immune function are adequate
Acute Malnutrition Depleted lean body mass, blood proteins & immune function, but not fat stores
Mixed Malnutrition Lean body mass, blood proteins, immune function and fat stores are all depleted
Nutrition Support during stress Fluid & electrolytes are given by IV, progressive diet, and more calories are req.
Progessive Diet Slow change from clear liquids (Apple Juice) to full liquids (Milk), low fiber (Apple Sauce) to regular food
What is the calories requirement if fever is involved with stress event? 7% more for every degree (F) above normal
2 dangers of deliverig nutrients thru the GI tract immediately after the stress period Intestinal distention & perforation and Regurgitation into the lungs
Refeeding Syndrome Complications that are associated w/ reintroducing nutrients after stress event
What are some examples of complications of refeeding syndrome? Respiratory distress, Congestive heart failure, Convulsations and Coma
Infections Invation of pathogens, anemia usually develops b/c iron is sequestered and kidney don't replaces the iron in blood
Nutrition needs in trauma and surgery Good preoperation- decrease complications, NPO at least 8hrs- prevent vomiting/aspiration, and progressive diet
Organ Transplantation Requires precaution against food-borne illnesses b/c they are given immunosuppressive drugs
1st Degree Burn Damage the epidermis, usually redness and pain
2nd Degree Burn Epidermis and top part of dermis, usually blisters
3rd Degree Burn Epidermis, dermis and hypodermis are damage
Burn Care Need fluid, electrolytes, and albumin b/c they leak from area and protein req. is 2 to 3x RDA
Protective mechanisms of the GI tract Villi form a barrier, Goblet cells secrete mucus, Peyer's patches (lymph nodes), and IGA is secrete in mucus & saliva
Factors that increase the chance of translocation Reduce blood flow to intestine, parenteral nutrition, malnutrition, immunosuppresive drugs, and antibotics
Enteral feeding Deliverance of nutrient thru the GI tract
Parenteral feeding Deliverance of nutrient thru vein
Glutamine Most abundant amino acid, provide fuel for intestinal cells, required for synthesis of nucleotides, essential during stress event
Short chain fatty acids 2-4 C long, made by bacteria in GI, provide fuel to large intestine, stimulate intestinal cell growth & blood flow
Created by: Futuredoctor09