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Year 10 Genetics

QuestionAnswer
Genetics The study of traits (characteristics) and how they are inherited.
Dominant allele The one that the shows in a heterozygous genoype.
Recessive allele The one that is not expressed unless it’s genotype homozygous.
Phenotype The effect (that can be seen) of the genotype.
Punnet Squares Used to determine the phenotypes of the offspring using the genotypes of the parents.
Incomplete Dominance Form of inheritance where 2 alleles are expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygous genotype.
Co-Dominance The phenotype of the heterozygous organism is a combination of the phenotypes of the homozygous organisms.
Genotype(s) of Blood Group 'O' OO
Genotype(s) of Blood Group 'A' AA or AO
Genotype(s) of Blood Group 'B' BB or BO
Genotype(s) of Blood Group 'AB' AB
DNA stands for _____________ Deoxyribonucleic Acid
What does DNA do? It carries all of the gene information that determines the characteristics that you express.
Who discovered DNA? Watson & Crick, in 1953.
What are the 4 bases in DNA? Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine.
What is a nucleotide? A nucleotide is a building block consisting of: a sugar group,a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base.
What is the complementary strand of TAGTTAC? ATCAATG
What is a mutation? Any change in a gene or chromosome that may produce an alteration in the characteristic for which it codes.
Will mutations be inherited? No, unless they occur in the gametes or in the zygote cell.
What is 'single-cell mutation'? A type of mutation changes a single letter in the gene text. This results in the substitution of one amino acid for another in the protein.
What disease is a result of a single-cell mutation? Sickle-cell Anaemia.
What are somatic cells? Body cells.
What are gametes? Sex cells.
What are mitosis & meiosis? 2 types of cell division in animals.
How many daughter cells does mitosis make? It produces 2 daughter cells which are an exact copy of their parent cells (they have the same no. of chromosomes.
What are the the daughter cells made from mitosis called? They are called diploid cells, and have 46 chromosomes each (23 pairs).
How many daughter cells does meiosis make? Produces 4 daughter cells which are not exact copies of their parent cells.
Why are the daughter cells made from meiosis not exact copies of their parents? Because there are 2 divisions and each daughter cell contains half the number of chromosomes (23).
What are the the daughter cells made from meiosis called? They are called haploid cells, and have 23 chromosomes each.
Where does mitosis occur? In all body (somatic) cells (eg. skin cells, blood cells, muscle cells).
Where does meiosis occur? In sex cells (gametes).
What is a genotype? A combination of alleles.
Where is DNA located? Within the nucleus of all cells, thread-like structures known as chromosomes are found. On these chromosomes, there are bands called genes. This is where DNA is located.
What is a genotype? A combination of alleles.
What 'states' can genotypes be in? Homozygous or Heterozygous.
What is a phenotype? The effeect of the genotype (that can be seen).
Where is DNA located? Within the nucleus of all cells, thread-like structures known as chromosomes are found. On these chromosomes, there are bands called genes. This is where DNA is located.
What is a 'condon'? Letters of a gene (in sets of 3s), each of which signifies a different amino acid.
How many possible condons are there? Sixty-four.
How many different amino acids are there? Twenty.
What 3 letters do all genes begin with? ATG.
What "stop" condons are there? TAA, TAG, or TGA.
What is a mutagen? A mutation-causing agent.
What are some mutagens? X-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet light.
Which cells are diploid? Somatic cells (they have 2 sets of chromosomes; 2n).
Which cells are haploid? Gametes (they have 1 set of chromosomes; 1n).
What is a zygote? The initial cell formed when a new organism is produced by means of sexual reproduction.
What is a Pedigree? A “family tree” that is useful in getting background genetic information that can be used for medical reasons.
Why can’t a non-tongue-roller be heterozygous for the condition? A recessive allele will only be expressed in an individual if they have a homozygous genotype (tt).
What are the types of inheritance? Simple Inheritance, Incomplete Inheritance, Co-Dominanace, and Sex-Linked Inheritance.
Blood types are what kind of inheritance? Co-Dominance.
How are the 4 bases of DNA paired together? Adenine + Thymine (A+T) Guanine + Cytosine (G+C)
How many bases does a segment of DNA have? Up to 1000.
Males of what kind of chromosome? XY.
Females have what kind of chromosome? XX.
How many pairs of non-sex chromosomes do humans have? Twenty-two.
What are Homologous Chromosomes? Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern, with genes for the same characteristics at the same locations (loci).
What is the cell cycle? The cell grows (G1 phase); Replicates its DNA (S phase); Prepares for cell division (G2 phase); Divides by mitosis (M phase).
What happends during the M phase of the cell cycle? Each chromosome is duplicated, and each replica remains attached to its original at the centromere portion of the chromosome. The two identical strands are called sister chromatids.
What is a gene? Someting that controls a particular characteristic.
Created by: Doctor Moreau