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Ankle Jt & foot CH19

Ankle joint and foot

What are the bony landmarks of the Tibia? Crest (line down the midline of shin?, medial malleolus, and tibial head (on top)
What are the bony landmarks of the Fibula? Lateral malleolus, and fibular head
Where is the Calcaneal Tuberosity? Heel; projection on the posterior inferior surface of the calcaneus
Where is the Sustentaculum tali? Medial and superior part projecting out of the calcaneus
Where is the Talus? Tarsal bone (sits on calcaneus)
Navicular Medial, distal to talus, proximal to 3 cuniforms
Navicular tuberosity is found lateral or medial? Medial (because the bone is on the medial side of the foot)
Cuboid Lateral side, distal to calcaneus, proximal to the 4th /5th metatarsals
Cuneiforms 1st - most medial to 1st metatarsal; 2nd = 2nd metatarsal; 3rd = 3rd metatarsal
Metatarsals 1-5; 5th tuberosity laterally
Phalanx (phalanges) Proximal (middle) distal (no middle for big toe = Hallux
What is the functional division for the forefoot? Metatarsals & phalanges
What is the functional division for the midfoot? Navicular, cuboid, cuneiforms (3)
What is the functional division for the hindfoot? Talus & Calcaneus
Joint motion for plantarflexion Foot down toward the floor
Joint motion for dorsiflexion Foot toward the ceiling
Joint motion for inversion Toe in and increased arch
Joint motion for eversion Toe out and decreased arch
Joint motion for abduction Forefoot out
Joint motion for adduction Forefoot in
Joint motion for supination inversion with adduction & plantarflexion (medial)
Joint motion for pronation eversion with abduction & dorsiflexion (lateral)
Valgus Distal end moves laterally and occurs @ calcaneus
Varus Distal end moves medially and occurs @ calcaneus
What joint is formed by the head of fibula and the posterior/lateral aspect of tibia? Superior tibiofibular joint
What joint is formed by the concave distal tibia & convex distal fibula? Inferior tibiofibular joint
Which tibofibular joint is not snovial and does not have a joint capsule? Inferior tibiofibular joint
Which tibiofibular joint is uniaxial, has planar movements, interosseous membrane supposts and ligaments of joint support the joint? Superior tibiofibular joint
Which ankle bone is convex in both tibiofibular joints? Fibula
Why does the ankle have planar motion? The sliding of the fibula allows the head of the talus to move in and out of the space formed by the tibia and fibula.
What bones make up the talocrural or talotibial joint? Distal tibia - medial malleolus & the distal fibula - lateral malleolus with the talus tendon
What movements happen at the talocrural joint? Plantarflexion & dorsiflexion
True or False, the talocrural is a uniaxial joint and has only one degree of freedom? True
ROM for the talocrural in PF? 50 degrees
ROM for the talocrural in DF? 20 degrees
Due to the axis of the talocrural not being in one plane but in all 3 planes, what is it called? Triplanar
Closed packed position for the talocrural joint? Full dorsiflexion
What is another name for the subtalor joint? Talocalcaneal joint
What kind of motion happens at the subtalar joint? Gliding motions
In the midfoot, the combination of inversion & eversion happen with what joint? Transverse tarsal joint
The combination of the joints from which area of the LE allow for great adaptations to conform to varied, graded, and unlevel ground surfaces? The joints of the ankle and foot
What are the motions of the MTP joints? Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction
Which MTP joint has 45 degrees of flexion and 70 degrees of hyperextension? The 1st MTP
What is the motion that is crucial for gait w/the first MTP? Hyperextension
What is the order of the joints for the 2nd-5th digits? MTP, PIP & DIP
WHat is the order of the joints for the 1st digit? MTP & IP
Which toes have 3 joints? 2-5
Which toes have 2 joints? 1, great toe
Describe the ankle joint capsule Thin, anterior & posterior and supported medially & laterally with ligaments
Which ankle ligament is 4-sided? Deltoid
All of the tibular ligaments of the ankle are found medially or laterally? Tibia = medial
All of the fibular ligaments of the ankle are found medially or laterally? Fibula = lateral
Name the 4 ligaments of the medial side of the ankle? (Anterior) tibionavicular, (middle) tibiocalcaneal, posterior tibiotalar, and (Deep) anterior tibiotalar
What are the 3 functions of the medial ligaments of the ankle? Support the medial side of the ankle joint; to hold the calcaneus & navicular against the talus; holds the medial longitudial arch
Where and what does the tibionavicular connect? Anterior, to the navicular bone of the foot
Where and what does the tibiocalcaneal connect? Middle, to the sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus
Where and what does the posterior tibiotalar connect? Posterior, to the talus
Where and what does the anterior tibiotalar connect? Deep, to the talus
Name the 3 ligaments of the lateral side of the ankle? Anterior talofibular, posterior talofibular, abd calcanealfibular (middle)
Which lateral ankle ligament is most often torn because it's the weakest? Anterior talofibular
Which is the strongest lateral ankle ligament? Posterior talofibular
What is the function of teh lateral ankle ligaments? Connect the fibula to the lateral malleolus
What are the function of the arches of the foot? Shock absorbtion and weight bearing (calcaneus to 1st-5th MT heads)
What bone is the keystone (top) of the medial longitudial arch? Talus
Name the bones posterior to anterior in the medial longitudial arch? Calcaneus, Talus, Navicular, 1-3 Cuneiforms and 1-2 MT
Name the bones posterior to anterior in the lateral longitudial arch? Calcaneus, Cuboid and 4-5 MT
What happens to the lateral longitudial arch with weight bearing? It flattens
What happens to the medial longitudial arch with weight bearing? depresses & never normally flat
Transverse Arch Runs side to side through the 3 Cuneiforms and Cuboid
What bone is the keystone of the transverse arch? 2nd Cuneiform
What is another name for the Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament? Spring Ligament
What is the function and description of the spring ligament? Short, wide, and supports the medial portion of the longitudimal arch.
Which ligament is the primary support for the longitudinal arch? Long plantar ligament
What is the location of the long plantar ligament? Calcaneus to cuboid and then to 3,4,5th MT
Which ligament assists the long plantar ligament? Short plantar ligament
What is the location of the short plantar ligament? Calcaneus to cuboid
Which ligament supports the arches, and increases the stability of the foot? Plantar Aponeuroses
What is the location of the plantar aponeurosis ligament? Calcaneus to proximal phalanges
Describe shin splints Exercise induced @ medial tibia (lower 1/2 tibia); inflammation of the periosteum; overuse; running -poor shock absorption (hard surface, tip toes, and jumping)
Plantigrade Normal foot; @ 90 degrees angle to shin
What is another name for horse's foot/hindfoot in PF (walkking on toes)? Equinus
What do you call a foot fixed in dorsiflexion? Calcaneus foot
What do you call a foot with an abnormally high arch (like the opening of a cave)? Pes Cavus
What do you call a foot with a decreased arch? Pes Planus
What is another name for bunions (distal end more lateral)? Hallux Valgus
What is another name for a stiff MTP (1st) Hallux Rigidus
What does hammer toe look like? DIP extension, PIP flexion, and MTP extension (toes 2-5)
What does mallet toe look like? DIP flexion, PIP extension, MTP extension (toes 2-5)
What does claw toe look like? DIP flexion, PIP flexion, MTP extension (toes 2-5)
What is metatarsalgia (algia = pain)? Metatarsal heads pain (walking in high heals)
What is Morton's neuroma (bundle of nerves)? Increased pressure of plantar digital nerves 3-4 MT, increased pain, increased numbness and increased pain with activity
WHat is turf toe? Hyperextension of 1st MTP (sports players)
What ligaments are affected with an ankle sprain? Lateral ligaments (inversion sprain) is the most common
The medial or lateral malleolus is most commonly involved with ankle fractures? Lateral
Ankle fractures usuall happen how? trip or fall from height and with twisting force
What do you call an overuse injury, with pain in the heel (plantar surface) @ attachment to calcaneus Plantar fascitius
What is a pre-cursor to AT rupture? Achilles tendonitis
What does arthrodesis mean? Fusion of a joint
What joints are involved with triple arthrodesis? Talocalcaneal (subtalor) jt, calcaneocuboid jt, talonavicular jt
What function does triple arthrodesis serve? Provides medial and lateral stability
What movement do you lose with triple arthrodesis? Inversion & eversion
What movement can you still do with triple arthrodesis? Dorsiflexion & plantarflexion
Name the posterior muscles of the calf? Gastronemius, soleus, plantaris
Name the deep posterior muscles of the calf? Tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus
Name the anterior muscles of the calf? Tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus
Name the lateral muscles of the calf? Peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, peroneus tertius
Created by: srussel
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