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Sensation Perception Unit; AP Psych

gestalt how people integrate and organize perceptual information into meaningful wholes. R
Weber's Law Just noticeable difference in stimulus is proportional to magnitude of original
phi phenomenon lights next to each other blinking on and off in succession appear to actually move. R
Feature Detectors ability to detect certain types of stimuli, like movements, shape, and angles, requires specialized cells in the brain called feature detectors. R
Relative Motion Parallax apparent relative motion of several stationary objects against a background
visual cliff test given to infants to see if they have developed depth perception. R
vestibular sense system for sensing body orientation and balance
top-down processing previous experience effect how perceived obj is interpreted
bottom-up processing depend primarily on brain's reception of stimulus info from sensory receptors
difference threshold known as the just noticeable difference (jnd), is the minimum difference in stimulation that a person can detect 50 percent of the time R
absolute threshold smallest intensity of a stimulus that has to be present for the stimulus to be detected. R
distal stimulus stimulus of an obj as it actually exists in the real world
proximal stimulus physical stimulation that is available to be measured by an observer's sensory apparatus
conduction hearing loss caused by damage to mechanical system that sends sound waves to cochlea
sensorineural hearing loss due to failure of auditory nerve
perceptual constancy perceived objects tend to give rise to very similar perceptual experiences
perceptual adaptation ability of the body to adapt to an environment by filtering out distractions. R
frequency theory relates perceived pitch to frequency of incoming sound waves and frequency of firing the auditory nerve
place theory perception of sound and depends on where each frequency produces vibrations along the basilar membrane
lens transparent structure behind pupil, changes shape when focusing
retina light sensitive surface with cells that convert light energy to nerve impulses
rods in retina; visual receptor cells that detect black and white
cones in retina; visual receptor cells that detect sharp images and colors
fovea vision is best here, center of retina
middle ear between eardrum and cochlea containing hammer anvil and stirrup
inner ear innermost part; contains cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
cochlea coild, bony, fluid filled, tube in inner ear
color constancy the context in which an object we are viewing appears in influences the way we perceive the color of that object
visual capture tendency to allow visual images to dominate our perception
perceptual set mental predisposition
opponent process theory color is processed in opponent pairs; red+green yellow+blue Black+white
parallel processing ability to carry out multiple tasks simultaneously
optic nerve nerve that carries visual info from eye to occipital lobe
wavelength distance between 2 points in the same phase in consecutive cycles of a wave
transduction process of converting one for of energy to another
sensory adaptation change over time in responsiveness of sensory system to constant stimulus
signal detection theory quantify ability to discern between signal and noise
perception process of attaining or understanding of sensory info
sensation awareness of stimulation
psychophysics addresses the relationship between psychological experiences and physical energy. R
subliminal below the threshold of conscious perception
hue aspect of color that is determined by the wavelength of light. R
intensity amount of energy transmitted
pupil contractile black dot in center of iris
iris controls size of pupil, determines eye color
accommodation adjustment
acuity sharpness of vision
farsightedness ability to see farther away
nearsightedness ability to see nearer
blind spot no rods of cones here; where optic nerve travels through retina
frequency hertz (Hz)
pitch sounds highness or lowness
gate control theory spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks or allows pain signals to pass
kinesthesis system for sensing position and movement of individual body parts
selective attention focus on one thing ignoring the rest
figure ground differentiation between foreground and background of a scene
grouping classifying
depth perception visual ability to perceive the world in 3D
binocular cues visual cues that require use of both eyes
monocular cues visual cues that requires the use of one eye
retinal disparity sensation of depth from 2 slightly different projections onto retinas of 2 eyes
pheremones chemical secretion that triggers a social response to members of the same species
extrasensory perception apparent power to perceive things that are not present to senses *branch off of parapsychology
parapsychology psychic phenomena
human factors psychology focuses on a range of different topics, including ergonomics, workplace, safety, human error, etc.
convergence when your eyes move closer together as something becomes nearer to your face
sensory interaction interaction of the senses to each other and how they effect/influence each other
audition perceptive deafness; nerve hearing loss. caused by damage to cochlea's receptor cells, the auditory nerve, a problem in the hair cells, or cortical neurons. *causes: tumors, skull injuries, poisons, birth control
young helmholtz trichromatic (three color) theory cones are "tuned" to be sensitive to red, green, and blue light. all colors we see are combinations of these. similar to color TV
Created by: HoldTheFermata
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