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C2S3 Book 1

Pg. 56-62, The Cell Cycle, The Structure of DNA

Stage 1: Interphase The first stage of the Cell Cycle; the period before Cell Division; during this, the cell grows, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into 2 cells; 2 cylindrical structures called centrioles are also copied
What is Mitosis? The stage during in which the cell's nucleus divides into 2 new Nuclei; 1 copy of the DNA is distributed into each of the 2 daughter cells
Stage 2A of Mitosis: Prophase Chromatin in the nucleus condenses to form chromosomes; The pairs of centrioles move to opposite sides of the nucleus; Spindle Fibers form a bridge between the ends of the cell; the nuclear envelope breaks down
Stage 2B of Mitosis: Metaphase The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell; each chromosome attaches to a Spindle Fiber at its centromere
Stage 2C of Mitosis: Anaphase The Centromeres split; The 2 chromatids separate; 1 chromatid is drawn by its Spindle Fiber to one end of the cell; the other chromatid moves to the opposite end; the cell stretches out as the opposite ends are pushed apart
Stage 2D of Mitosis: Telophase The Chrosomes begin to stretch out and lose their rodlike appearence; a new nuclear envelope forms around each region of chromosomes
Stage 3: Cytokinesis The cytoplasm divides; the organelles are distributed into each of the 2 new cells
The Structure of DNA There is a DNA ladder made up of molecules of a sugar (deoxyribose) and it alternates with molecules known as phosphates; each rung is made up of a pair of molecules (nitrogen bases- Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Adenine; T&A, A&T, G&C, C&G)
The Replication Process Begins when the 2 sides of the DNA molecule unwind and separate; Because of the way in which the nitrogen bases pair with one another, the order of the bases in each new DNA moloecule exactly matches the order in the original DNA molecule
Created by: abbeyjohnson97