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Ch 5 Cir System

A & P Paramedic

QuestionAnswer
absolute refractory period the early phase of repolarizationin which the cell contains such a large cocentration of ions that it cannot be stimulated to depolarize
afterload the pressure in the aorta against which the left ventricle must pump blood
agranulocytes leukocytes that lack granules
alpha effect stimulation of alpha receptors that results in vasoconstriction
anemia adecrease in the number of red blood cells, for any reason
anterior descending coronary artery one of the two brances of the left main coronary artery
antibodies proteins within plasma that react with antigens
antigens substances on the surface of erythrocytes that are recognized by the immune system
aorta the largest aretery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the entire body
aortic arch one of the tree described portions of the aorta; gives rise to the reight brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries
arteriosclerosis the deposition of calcium in the arterial walls that results in a loss of elasticity and concomiant reduction in blood floww
ascending aorta the first of three portions of the aorta; gives rese to two brances, the right and left main coronary arteries
atherosclerosis a disorder characterized by the formation of plaques of material, mostly lipids and cholesterol, on the inner arterial walls
atrioventricular (AV) node the site located in the right atrium adjacent to the septum that is responsible for transiently slowing electrican conduction
atrioventricular valves the two valves through which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles
atrium one of the two chambers in the heart that receives blood back from the body
automaticity the ability of cardiac cells to generate an impulse to contract even when there is no external nervous stimulus
axillary vein the vein that is formed from the combination of the basilic and cephalic veins; it drains into the subclavian venin
baroreceptors receptors in the blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart that respond to changes in pressure in the heart or main arteries to help maintain homeostasis
basilar artery the artery that is formed when the left and right vertebral arteries unite after entering the brain through the foramen magnum
basilic vein one of the two major veins of the arm, it combines with the cephalic vein to form the axillary vein
basophils the least common of all granulocytes; they are important in both allergic and inflammatory reactions
beta effect stimulation of beta receptors that results in increased inotropic, dromotropic, and chronotropic states
bilirubin a waste product of red blood cell destruction that undergoes further metabolism in the liver
blood the fluid tissue that is pumped by the heart through the arteries, veins, and capillaries and consist of plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets
bruit an abnormal "whooshing-like" sound indicating chaotic blood flow within a blood vessel
bundle of His part of the conduction system of the heart; a continuation of the atrioventricular node
capillaries thin-walled vessels that allow oxygen and nutrients to pass out into the cells and allow carbon dioxide and waste products to pass from the cells into the capillaries
cardiac cycle the pumping process begins with the onset of myocardial contraction and ends with the beginning of the next contraction
cardiac outpud expressed as liters per minute, amount of blood pumped through the circulatory system in 1 minute
cardiac tamponade alife-threatening state of shock taht develops as a result of a large pericardial effusion
carotid bifurcation the point of division at which the common carotid artery branches at the angle of the mandible into the internal and external carotid arteries
carotid canals an opening in the cranial vault through which the carotid arteries enter
carotid sinus a slight dilatation in the carotid bifurcation that contains structures that are important in the regulation of blood pressure
cephalic vein one of the two major veins of the arm that combine to form the axillary vein
cerebellum the part of the brain that is located dorsal to the pons and is responsible for coordination and balance
cerebral arteries the arteries that supply blood to large portions of the cerebral cortex of the brain
chemoreceptors receptors inthe blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart that respond to changes in chemical composition of the blood to help maintain homeostasis
chordae tendineae cordis small muscular strands that attach the ventricles and the valves, preventing regurgitation of blood throught the valves from the ventricles to the atria
chronotropic state related to the control of the heart's rate of contraction
circle of Willis an interconnectionof the anterior crerbral arteries and the anterior communicating artery, which forms an important source of collateral circulation to the brain
circumflex coronary artery one of the tow branches of the left main coronary artery
conduction system a group of complex electrical tissues within the heart that iniciate and transmit stimuli that result in contractions of myocardial tissue
conductivity the ability of cardic cells to conduct electrical impulses
contractility the strength of heart muscle contraction
coronary arteries arteries that arise from the aorta shortlyafter it leaves the left ventricle and supply the heart withoxigen and nutrients
coronary artery disease (CAP) the condition that results when either atherosclerosos or arteriosclerosis is present in the arterial walls
coronary sinus veins that collect blood that is returning from the walls of the heart
cusps the flaps that comprise the heart valves
depolarization the process of electrical discharge and flow of electrical activity from a cell
descending aorta one of the three portions of the aorta, is is the longest portion and extends through the thorax and abdomen into the pelvis
diapedesis a process whereby leukocytes leave blood vessels to move toward tissue where they are needed most
dorsalis pedis artery a continuation of the anterior tibial artery at the foot
dromotropic state related to the control of the heart's conduction rate
ejection fraction the portion of the blood ejected from the ventricle during systole
electrical potential an electrical charge difference that is created by the difference in sodium and potassium concentration across the cell membrane at any given instant
electrocardiogram (ECG) a graphic recording of the electrical activity of the heart
embolus a piece of clot that travels from one part of the body to another, potentially becoming an obstruction to blood flow
endocarditis infection of a heart valve
eosinophils granulocytes that contain granules that stain bright red with the acidic stain, eosin, and funciton in the body's allergic response
epicardium the layer of the serous pericardium that lies closely against the heart; aka visceral pericardium
epinephrine a naturally occurring hormone with a greater stimulatory effect on beta receptors that also may be given as a cardiac drug
erythroblastosis fetalis a serious condition that results when a pregnan woman's blood type is incompatible with the fetus' blood type and antibodies from the mother enter the fetal circulation and destroy the fetus' RBC
erythrocytes disk-shaped cells that carry oxygen to the tissues; aka red blood cells
erythropoiesis the process by which RBC are made
excitability a property of cardiac cells that provides the cells with the ability torespond to electrical impulses
femoral artery a continuation of the external ilial artery, it supplies circulation to the thigh, external genitalia, anterior abdominal wall, and knee
femoral vein a continuation of the saphenous vein that drains into the external iliac vein
fibrin a white insoluble protein formed in the clotting process
foramen ovale an opening between the two atria that is present in the fetus but closes shortly after birth.
fossa ovalis a depression between the reght and left atria that indicates where the foramen ovale had been located in the fetus
granulocytes a type of leukocyte that has alarge cytoplasmic granules that are easily seen with a simple light microscope
heart a muscular, cone-cone shaped organ whose function is to pump blood throughout the body
hemartopoiesis the process of blood cell production in the bone marrow; aka hemopoiesis
hemoglobin the protein in RBC that gives them their reddish color, it binds oxygen absorbed in the lungs and transports it to the tissues where it is needed
hemostasis control of bleeding by formation of a blood clot
heparin a substance found in large amounts in basophils that inhibits blood clotting
hepatic portal system a specialized part of the venous system that drains blood from the liver, stomach, intestines, and spleen
hepatic veins the veins to which blood empties after liver cells in the sinusoids of the liver extract nutrients, filter the blood, and metabolize various drugs
histamine a substance found in large amounts in basophils that increases tissue inflammation
inferior vena cava one of two major large veins that return deoxygenated blood to the heart via the right atrium. Blood from the lower body is return to the hert by the inferior vena cava
inotropic state related to the strength of the heart's contraction
interatrial septum a membrane that separates the right and left atria
interventricular septum a thick wall that separates the right and left ventricles
ischemia insufficient oxygen at a particular tissue site often associated with obstruction of areterial blood flow to the site
jaundice a yellowing of the skin adn sclera because of excessive concentrations of bilirubin in the blood
jugular veins the two main veins that drain the head and neck
leukemia a cancerous condition in which certain cell lines begin to grow abnormally fast and invade other tissues
leukocytes white blood cells that are responsible for fighting infection
Created by: anglromeu