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Nursing 102

Module D

Core Temperature Temperature of the deep tissues
Thermoregulation physiological and behavioral mechanisms regulate the balance between lost heat and heat production
Hypothalamus controls body temp
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) accounts for the heat producted by the body at absolute rest
Nonshivering thermogenesis Primarily in neonates, b/c they have a limited amt of vascular brown tissue present at birth, which is metabolized for heat production
Shivering an involuntary body response to the differences in the body, can increase heat production 4-5 times greater than normal
Radiation Transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another without direct contact.
conduction transfer of heat from one object to another with direct contact
convection transfer of heat away by air movements
evaporation transfer of heat energy when liquid is changed to gas, body loses 600-900 mL per day through evaporation
Diaphoresis visible perspiration primarily occuring on the forehead and upper thorax
Pyrexia/fever occurs b/c heat loss mechanisms are unable to keep pace with exxcess heat production
Pyrogens Bacteria/viruses that elevate body temp
Febrile with fever
afebrile without fever
fever of unknown origin (FUO) fever whose cause cannot be determined
Malignant hyperthermia hereditary conditions of uncontrolled heat production, occuring when susceptible persons receive certain anestetic drugs
Hyperthermia Elevated body temp related to the body's inability to promote heat loss or reduce heat production
Heat stroke dangerous heat emergency with a high mortality rate
heat exhaustion occurs when profuse diaphoresis results in excess water and electrolyte loss
Hypothermia classifies by core temp measurements, low temp
Frostbite occurs when body is exposed to subnormal temps
Celsius C= (F/1.8) - 32
Fahrenheit F=(C*1.8) + 32
Cardiac output Product of HR and the SV, p 520-521
Radial pulse used to teach pt to learn how to monitor their own heart rates
brachial pulse use for infants and young children
apical pulse use for infants and young children and if irregular heartbeat in adults
tachycardia abnormally elevated HR, above 100 pbm
Bradycardia Slow rate, below 60 bpm
Pulse deficit Created by inefficient contractions of the heart that fail to transmit a pulse wave to the peripheral pulse site
Dysrhymia Interval interrupted by an early or late beat or a missed beat indicates an abnormal rhythm, described as regularly irregular or irregularly irregular
Sinus dysrhythmia In children, an irregular heartbeat that speeds up with inspiration and slows down with expiration
Pulse documentation strong, weak, thready, or bounding
ventilation movement of gases in and out of the lungs
diffusion the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and the red blood cells
Perfusion the distribution of the red blood cells to and from the pulmonary capillaries
Eupnea normal rate and depth of ventilation
Hyppoxemia low levels of arterial 02, if arterial levels fall these receptors signal the brain to increase the rate and depth of ventilation.
Blood Pressure force exerted on the walls of an artery by the pulsing blood pressure from the heart
Systolic pressure The peak of max pressure when ejections occurs
Diastolic pressure Ventricles relax and blood remaining in arteries exerts min pressure
Pulse pressure Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
Hematocrit Percentage of red blood cells in the blood
Hypertension Most common alteration in the blood pressure, high blood pressure
Orthostatic hypotnsion Aka postural hypotension, occurs when a normotensive person develops syptoms and low blood pressure when rising to an upright position
Sphygmomanometer Blood Pressure manometer, occlusive cloth or vinyl cuff that encloses inflatable rubber bladder, and a pressure bulb with a release valve that inflates the bladder
Auscultatory gap When brachial artery pressure is heard while cuff pressure is high, then disappears when pressure is reduced, then reappear at lower level, p545
How do you obtain core temperature? Point at which a person is aware of pain
Transduction Energy of stimuli converted to electrical energy
Nociceptor Sensory peripheral pain nerve fiber
Neurotransmitters Surround the pain fibers in the extracellular fluid, spread pain message and cause inflammatory response
Pain threshold point at which a person feels pain
acute pain protective, has an identifiable cause, short duration, limited tissue damages and emotional response
chronic pain lasts longer than anticipated; not always identifiable cause, leads to great personal suffering
pseudoaddiction when a person with chronic noncancer pain appears to be drug seeking and is actually seeking pain relief
chronic episodic pain sporadically over extended duration
cancer pain not present in all cancer patients, sometimes nociceptive and or neuropathic, pt senses pain at the actual site of tumor or distant to the site (aka referred pain)
idiopathic pain chronic pain in the absence of an identifiable physical or psychological cause or pain perceived as excessive for the extent of an organic pathological condition
ABCDE Ask, Believe, Choose, Deliver, Empower
Nonpharmacological pain-relief interventions distraction, prayer, relaxatoin, guided imagery, music, and biofeedback
cutaneous stimulation stimulation of the skin with a mild electrical current passed though external electrodes
analgesics most common and effective method of pain relief 3 types: nonopiods, opioids (aka narcotics), adjuvants.coanalgesics (enhance analgesics)
NSAIDS nonsteroids anti-inflammatory drugs
PCA patient controlled analgesic, drug delivery system that allows pt to self-administer opioids with miniman risk of overdose
Local anesthesia local infiltration of an anesthesia of an anesthetic med to induce loss of sensation
regional anesthesia injection of a local anesthetic to block a group of sensory nerve fibers
epidural analgesia common for tx of acute postoperative pn. L&D pain, and chronic pain
Created by: Sarahmarie001
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