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Sherer Ch9

QuestionAnswer
set of numeric dose limits based on calculations of various risks of cancer and genetic fx to tissues or organs exposed to radiation effective dose limiting system
basis of effective dose limiting system risk of radiation-induced malignancy & cancerous neoplasms caused by exposure to ionizing radiation
4 organizations that oversee radiation protection IRCP, NRCP, UNCEAR, NSA/NCR-BEIR
evaluate info in biologic effects of radiation and provide radiation protection guidance thru general recommendation on occupational and public dose limits. IRCP - International Commission on Radiological Protection
Reviews regulations formulated by the IRCP and decided ways to include those recommendations in the US radiation protection criteria NRCP - National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
Evaluates human & environmental radiation exposure and derives radiation risk assessments from epidemiologic data and research conclusions, provides info to organizations such as IRCP for eval UNSCEAR - United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation
Reviews studies of biologic effects of ionizing radiation and risk assessment and provides the information to organizations such as IRCP for eval NAS/NRC-BEIR - Research Council Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation
is the NRCP an enforcement agency? no
US regulatory agencies that enforce radiation protections standards NRC, Agreement states, EPA, FDA, OSHA
Oversees the nuclear energy industry, enforces radiation protection standards, publishes rules and regulations, enters into agreements with state governments permitting state to license and regulate use of radioisotopes & other materials NRC - Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Enforce radiation protection regulations through their respective health departments Agreement states
Facilitates the development and enforcement of regulations pertaining to the control of radiation in the environment Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Conducts ongoing radiation control program, regulating design and manufacture of electronic products, including x-ray equipment US Food & Drug Administration (FDA)
Functions as a monitoring agency in places of employment, predominantly in industry Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
has the authority to control the possession, use, and production of atomic energy in the interest of national security Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
determines action level for radon EPA
conducts on site inspections of x-ray equipment, especially mammography units FDA
standards ensure protection of occupational and non occupationally exposed persons from faulty manufacturing FDA
mandates that a radiation safety committe (RSC) be established for the facility to assist in development of rhe radiation safety program NRC
Ensures facility follows internationally accepted guidelines for rad protection. normally a medical physicist, health physicist, radiologist, or ohter inficifual qualified through adequate training and experience. Radiation Safety Officer (RSO)
responsible for developing appropriate radiation safety program for facility to ensure all persons are adequately protected from radiation radiation safety officer (RSO)
responsible for maintaining all radiation monitoring records for all personnel and for providing counseling for individuals who recieve monitor readings in excess of allowable limits RSO
duties that RSO required to perform ID rad safety problems; initiate, recommend, or provide corrective action; stop unsafe operations involving byproduct material; verify implementation of corrective actions
enacted to protect the public from unneccessary exposure resulting from electronic products such as microwaves, color TVs, and x-ray equipment Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act 1968
required establishment of minimal standards for accreditation of educational programs for persons who perform radiologic procedures and certification of those persons Consumer-Patient Radiation Health and Safety act of 1981
effects directly related to the dose recieved nonstochastic (deterministic) effects
randomly occuring biologic somatic changes in which the chance of occurrence of the effect rather than the severity of the effect is proportional to the dose of ionizing radiation stochastic (probablistic) effects
mutations developed in reproductive cells that could have injurious consequence in subsequent generation mutagenesis
2 objectives of radiation protection prevent clinically important radiation-induced nonstochastic effect from occuring, limit risk of stochastic responses to conservative level
possibility of inducing a radiogenic cancer or genetic defect after irradiation risk
current method for assessing radiation exposure and associated risk of biologic damage to radiation workers and general public effective dose limit
occuaptional risk percentage for radiographers 2.5% chance of fatal accident over entire career
total external plus internal cumulative EfD limit age in years x 10mSv
greatest risk for radiation induced mental retardation for embryo-fetus 8-15 weeks after conception
indicate the riatio of the risk of stochastic effects attributable to irradiation of given organ or tissue to the total risk when whole body is uniformly irradiated Tissue Weighting Factor
Tissue weighting factor of bone surface & skin 0.01
Tissue weighting factor of Bladder, Breast, Liver, Esophagus, Thyroid 0.05
Tissue weighting factor of red bone marrow, colon, lung, stomach 0.12
Tissue weighting factor of gonads 0.20
annual occupational effective dose limit 50 mSv or 5mrem
what is not included in dose limits (annual or lifetime) background radiation, or exposure from medical procedures
recommended EfD for non occupationally exposed persons from artificial sources other than medical and natural background - countinous or frequent exposure 1 mSv (.1 rem)
infrequent exposure dose limit for non occupationally exposed persons 5 mSv (.5 rem)
monthly EqD for pregnant workers per month .5 mSv (.05 rem)
Entire pregnancy EqD limit 5 mSv (.5 rem)
Cumulative dose limit 10 mSv x age
annual EqD occupational limit for lens of eye 150 mSv
annual EqD occupational limit for localized area of the skin, hands, and feet 500 mSv
annual public exposure limit for EqD to lens of eye 15 mSv
annual public exposure limit for EqD to localized areas of skin, hands, feet 50 mSv
annual limit for remedial action for natural sources (excluding radon) >5 mSv
annual limit for exposure to radon and its decay products >26 J/(sm^3) (>2 WLM)
annual effective dose limit for educational and training purposes 1 mSv
annual EqD limit for lens of eye for educational and training purposes 15 mSv
annual EqD limit for localized area of skin, hands, feet for educational and training purposes 50 mSv
negligible individual annual dose .01 mSv
below this EfD level, a reduction of individual exposure is unnecessary negligible individual dose
set by health care facilities to trigger investigation into unusually high exposure action limits
what are action limits typically set at? 1/10 the actual limit
beneficial consequence of radiation for populations continuously exposed to moderately high levels of radiation radiation hormesis effect
Created by: jen.studer