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Unit C notes 1


Cancer Biology arises from normal cells- transformed by contact with a carcinogen( any substances that damages cellular DNA) and alters growth.
Abnomal cells- 5 phases lost of appearance; nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, loss of function; joined loosely together; migrate
What happens to the appearance of cells when they become abnormal? Lose shape, lose size and color
What does nucleus/cytoplasm raito in abnormal cells mean? nucleus is larger and cytoplasm is smaller in amount
What happens to the function of the cell when they are abnormal? Cell becomes undifferentiated, cell become useless after damage.
What does it mean by abnormal cells are joined loosely? Normal cells have protein that keep all cells joint together. Abnormal cells- cell purpose changes and the cells detach self and goes some where else in body
What happens when abnormal cells develop and then migrates? abnormal cells detach itself to migrate onto normal cells...they spread throughout body.
Describe carcinogensis Initiation-exposure/genectic chemical; Promotion- cells are changing; Transformation- cancer cell is growing (nucleus is bigger, genetic changes); Progression- Malignant tumors
Cancer staging/grading Classifies the cancer according to its clinical presentation- determines exact location.
Cancer staging/grading T-Tumor Extent of the primary tumor (original site of cancer)
Cancer Staging/Grading N- absence or presence of regional lymph node involvement
Cancer staging/grading M- metastasis (presence or absence)
Prevention and Control mammorgraphy and SBE; Testicular Cancer & STE; Colonoscopy; Smoking influences; Alcohol influences
Cancer in Children Hard to prevent cancer in children
Cancer in children- characteristics nonepithelial tissue, occurs in rapidly growing tissue, bone marrow, CNS, muscle, bone.
Cancer in children-embryonic tumors only occur in children. metastasis occurs more rapidly in children often present at time of diagnosis, cancer more diffiicult to recognize in children
Cancer in children- Causes genetic alteration cause unregulated growth of cell. some cancers demonstrate an inheritance pattern eg. Wilm's tumor, neuroblastoma; chromosomal abnormalities, immu. def. DES, ionizing radiation
Cancer in children/ Assessment Fever, Pain, petechiae and ecchymosis, abdominal mass, swollen lymphnodes, frequent headache, vomiting, unexplained rapid wt. loss
In the process of carcinogenesis, which two stages can be stabilized or reversed if the cell has the ability to repair the genetic alteration? Initiation and promotion stage
Created by: Esimon