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PoliSci7 IR

UCSB Reyes IR 7 Political Science

nation- a group of people who want to live together in their own territory-have a political goal-live together unified, have similarities-ancestry and culture
state organized body with government(often) organization that controls a specific territory, monopoly on the legitimate use of force. abstract concept. people have to agree in order for it to be a state, universal recognition is not necessary
government have the ability to use force, on own people as well. And use force on other states/governments
country physical territory
power- ability or potential to influence what others do( know you have power when you can make another actor do something they don't want to do, or stop doing something they really want to do)
hard power tangible resources that give actors resources for example-people, territory, natural resources, size of militaryd(coercion, know you are being coerced)
economic power ability to convert wealth into an instrument of power or influence, investment decisions, aide decisions, elements of economic policy making for example who to trade with, decisions at key economic institutions-IMF, world bank and WTO(hard power)
soft power manipulative power
the don corlione power- "godfather" power of reputation of having power and credibility, would back up what he said, made a threat carry it out-often involving violence and fear
politics- study of the process of who gets what when and how
Conflict differences in preferred outcomes
War when you use violence as leverage in a conflict, has 1000 combat deaths, sustained violence, organized violence, carried out by political units
Hegemonic war Wars over the entire world order , wars over who gets to decide the rules that govern the international relations
total war war by one state to occupy another state
limited war use military action to gain an objective, but not surrender, something else. Isn't occupation or sustained occupation
raids single action with a very narrow objective
civil war war between factions within a state-usually fighting to create a new government
guerilla warfare- warfare without front lines, irregular forces-goal of guerilla warfare is not to directly attack military, but gradually weaken the effectiveness of the state, create a crisis, usually their goal is to liberate an area, not a global warfare
terrorism - the threat, or use, of violence conducted by non uniformed personnel against civilians. The goal is to invoke terror, so the populous puts pressure on government to give in to the terrorist demands
Theory try to explain the relationships of states (does, is), objective power to predict(will) simplest thing it does is describe/classify
normative subjective-SHOULD subjective, what should do- not what IR theories are, subjective
Realism POWER MATTERS(the only variable)
Thucydides the strong do what they have the power to do and the weak accept what they have to accept”
Machiavelli different political code for leaders protection of the masses(national security)
Hobbes ◦ Wrote about the human nature of competition and selfishness ◦ the natural world is filled with competitive selfish people(war)
social contract that means that IR is filled with war and competition giving up individual sovereignty to the authority applies to the global arena, no global leviathan
Classical Realism Hans Morgenthau primary obligations of every state is to promote the national interest(survive)
national interest(classical realism) - the acquisition of power
motivations for states(classical realism) ◦ trying to increase power ◦ trying to keep power ◦ trying to demonstrate power
Structural Realism(neo realism)- Kenneth Waltz defensive positionalists
national interest(neorealism) security
sovereignty ability to do anything you want within your country, the state's right to have
anarchy rule by no one, everyone is sovereign
self help system rely on ourselves for national security
• Individual Level characteristics of people/behavior of individuals
• Domestic Level( )-look at domestic attributes of the state or society(the people of the state)
• Interstate Level International level, relationship of states
• Global Level global phenomenon that transcends state behavior
• Liberal Paradigm(school of thought ◦ central thesis-Global anarchy exists but it can be mitigated(stopped) ◦ optimistic about human nature-it is good, so progress is possible
◦ Emmanuel Kant against monarchies end of 18th century) ▪ needed to replace monarchies with republics then there would be hope for peace
▪ • republic not a monarchy with a legislative body
reciprocity give and receive in fair exchange
◦ Jeremy Bentham ▪ highlights role of active trade in perpetual peace • end of war-start trade with former enemy
Commercial/Interdependence Liberalism ◦ Talking about the value of commercial economic exchange ◦ interdependence
◦ interdependence you will be dependent on other countries but the dependence in reciprocal, states are all dependent on each other, so they wont fight each other
Republican Liberalism ◦ believe the best way to mitigate war is to create republican forms of government ◦ Doyle-”Democratic Peace Theory”
Cognitive Liberalism ◦ inspired by Kant ◦ War is irrational so why go to war? ◦ Spread education-Western education, favors rationality
Sociological Liberalism ◦ a network of dense transnational linkages ▪ relationships with people from all over ▪ modern technology-tv, web
Institutional Liberalism ◦ international institutions are the answer-create and maintain cooperation
◦ institution organization with headquarters and a bureaucracy
◦ regime isn't tangible, like a club
▪ shadow of the future - have regular meetings, guarantees that states are going to have to see each other over and over-don't want to do harm to countries you are going to have to deal with consistently in the future
◦ empirical evidence historical evidence, actual events and facts
Feminist IR Scholarship • central thesis: Gender matters, it plays a role in IR
Difference Feminism ▪ females are better nurturers and better at cooperation • women should be used in conflict resolution and decision making
Liberal Feminism ▪ genders are equal in capability and preferences and social interaction ▪ get more women in position of power
Postmodern Feminism ▪ argue that differences are arbitrary and flexible ▪ genders are socially constructed as are states
Marxist Approach to IR • Central Thesis: Global politics are representative of class divisions and struggle
◦ material world - world you can touch
◦ world of ideas the dominant class create and sustain ideas in order to legitimate their position of power (super structure) they create and control: ▪ the norms
• The core wealthy states, centers of industry and affluence, first world
• The periphery agricultural, lack education,non-diversified economies third world
• Dependency Theory the core make the periphery dependent on them, keep the periphery poor • states move to maximize the economic profit of the bourgeoisie
Constructivism • Everything is a social construct- from Post Modern ◦ focuses on identity and how it is constructed within the state
• Postmodernism • uncover hidden influences imbedded in IR you can address them and replace them with more peaceful or better choices
Peace Studies Approach • Positive peace should form the basis for IR ◦ Peace is totally possible (optimistic
◦ Peace not only absence of war but includes the promotion of conditions to secure peace, absence of the underlying conditions that cause conflict
◦ human security every person feeling secure, not national security
• structural violence oppression and other things that may not always be considered violent
• War of Aggression when a state uses force or imminent threat to do so against another state's territory or sovereignty , not in response to anything, offensive action, deemed to be illegal,violated international norm of state sovereignty
Created by: hannad