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What is the oxygen dependance of Staphylococci? Facultative Anaerobes
A yellow, beta-hemolyticu colony on a blood agar is suggestive for what? S. aureus
A White, non hemolytic colony on blood agar is suggestive for what? S. epidermis
Gram positive cocci in cluster; Catalase positve; Coagulase Postive? S. Aureus
Gram postivei cocci in clusters; Catalase Positive; Coagulase Negative; Acid from glucose positive? S. epidermidis
Gram postive cocci in clusters; Catalase Positive; Coagulase Negative; Acid from glucose negative? S. Saprophyticus
What gram positive cocci are easy to distinguish by a catalase test? Staphylococcus (positive) and Streptococcus (negative)
What are the 5 skin infections caused by Staphylococcus Aureus? Furnuncle,impetigo, carbuncle, mastitis, cellulits (folliculitis)
What are the 2 wound infections caused by staph aureus? community aquired and surgical
What can infection of the apocrine sweat glands with staph aureus lead to? Hidradentis suppurtiva
What is impetigo usually due to? group A strep (30% are due to group A strep and S. Aureus)
What are some deep lesion (metastatic infections) that can be caused by S. Aureus? osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, meningitis, pneumonia
What are some bacteremia related diseases caused by Staph Aureus? endocarditis, meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, septicemia, and septic shock
What is septic shock caused by in S. aureus? Peptidoglycan
What can diabetes mellitus predispose a person through s. aureus infections? boils, furnuncles, carbuncles, and wound infections and bacteremia
What are the risk factors for endocarditis caused by S. aureus? heroin addiction and prosthetic heart valve
What is the 1 host defense against S. Aureus infections?
What three virulence factors of S. aureus protect it from phagocytes? protein A, catalase, leukocidin
How does protein A protect S. aureus from phagocytosis? it bonds the Fc region of Ig's
What does techoic acid do in S. aureus? binds fibronectin and induces shock
What does coagulase in S. aureus do? initiates conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
What does the virulence factor hyaluronidase do for S. aureus? acts on hyaluronic acids in CT and facilitates dissemination through subcutaneous tissues
What are the differnet cytotoxins that S. aureus produce? Alpha hemolysin; Beta toxin (sphingomyelinase C - kills cells by hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids); Delta toxin; Gamma toxin and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (lysis of neutrophils and macrophages)
What toxins are produced by S. aureus which cause clinical diseases? Exfoliatin A, B; Toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1); Staphylococcus enterotoxin
What are the 5 toxin mediated diseases caused by S. Aureus? Bullous impetigo, Scalded Skin Syndrome; Staphylococcal scarlet fever; toxic shock syndrome; food poisoning
What diseases do the exfoliatin A and B toxins secreted by S. Aureus cause? Bullous impetigo; scalded skin syndrome; staphylococcal scarlet fever
How do Exfoliatins cause scalded skin syndrome? Serine proteases - cause splitting of desmosomes in the stratum granulosum epidermis
What is the superantigen that is produced by S. aureus? TSST-1 (toxic shock syndrome toxin 1)
Who are at risk for developing toxic shock syndrome? menstruating women; women with barrier contraceptive devices; persons who have undergone nasal surgery
What are the top three lab findings in toxic shock syndrome? elevated serum creatinine; thrombocytopenia; hypocalcemia
What are the major clinical signs and symptoms of toxic shock syndrome? diarrhea, myalgia, vomiting, fever
What do staphylococcus enterotoxin cause? food poisoning
Is there fever due to S. aureus enterotoxin induced diarrhea? NO
Where are S. aureus enterotoxins coded? many are phage-encoded
This is a gram-positive facultative anaerobe which is spore forming capable of producing diarrheal disease, emetic disease, and other opportunistic infections? Bacillus cereus
What bacillus cereus toxin causes diarrheal disease due to increased cAMP? Heat labile enterotoxin
What bacillus Cereus toxin causes emetic disease? Heat stabile enterotoxin
Which B. cereus disease has a longer incubation and a longer duration (diarrheal or emetic)? Diarrheal (caused by heat labile toxin)
Which B. cereus disease is due to ingestion of PRE-FORMED toxin? Emetic disease (found in RICE)
Which foods would cause the diarrheal disease due to B cereus? meat, vegetables, sauces
What is the difference between food poisoning due to S. aurues and B. cerues? S. aureus has vomiting AND diarrhea
What kind of diarrhea is caused by B. cereus (watery, inflammatory, bloody)? Watery
Studies show that non-carriers are inherently resisten to colonization by S. aureus T/F? TRUE; may be due to host or bacterial factors
What are some places highly susceptible to MRSA? outpatient clinics, sports settigns, tattoo parlors (many others)
What is bacteriophage typing useful for ? Useful in tracking antibiotic resistance, investigating outbreaks in food poisoning
Where is the Penicilinase gene encoded for in S. aureus? plasmid
Where is the MecA gene (responsible for methicillin resistance) encoded within the MRSA? in the chromosome (rare transfer)
What gram positive, coagulase positive will you suspect if a patient has an infected wound and history of a dog bite? Staph intermedius
What are the two coagulase negative Staphylococcus capable of causing disease in humans? S. epidermidis, and S. saprophyticus
What are the infections caused by Staph epidermidis? UTI (hospital aquired); osteomyelitis; endocarditis; bacteremia (immunosuppresed); endophtalmitis (ocular surgery); indwelling foreign devices
What protects Staphylococcus epidermidis from antibiotics when found on indwelling medical devices? Biofilms
What is the 2nd most common cause of community-aquired UTI? Staphylococcus saprophyticus
What does staphylococcus saprophyticus make that can increase the pH of urine? urease
What is the benefit of coagulase for S. aureus? forms a fibrin formation around the bacteria protecting it from phagocytosis
Staphylokinase is secreted from S. aureus to do what? lyses fibrin clots (used to penetrate)
A patient has comes in with severe hypotension, rash, hx of vomiting and diarrhea and her hands and soles appear to be sloughing off. She is currently menstruating? Toxic Shock Syndrome
Sexy staff often make people excited directly? septic arthritis; skin infections; osteomyelitis; meningtis; pneumonia; endocarditis; DIRECT ORGAN INVOLEMENT
What is impetigo? A contagious disease often in the face; vesicles led to pustules which crust over to become honey-colored, wet and flaky
What is currently being used to treat MRSA although resitance to it is slowly occuring? Vancomycin
What gives S. epidermidis the ability to stick to medical devices? Polysaccharide capsule (extracellular polymers)
Created by: lamsonma



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