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Pyogenic cocci are (obligate intracellular, obligate extracellular, facultative intracellular) organisms? Obligate extracellular (staph and strep cannot live in PMNs)
What are cocci pairs (lancet shaped) typical of? Strep pneumo
Streptococci are catalase (positive or negative)? Negative (distinguishes them from Staph)
What does staph aureus look like on blood agar? Yellow ("gold"); with a clear zone around them (B-hemolytic)
Are polysaccharide antigens t-dependent or t-independent responses? What antibody is formed? T-independent; Form IgM antibody
Can infants form an immune response to polysaccharide antigens (like those given in older Strep Pneumo vaccines)? NO - cannot form T-independent immune response (need conjugate vaccines)
Streptococci pneumo is (non-hemolytic, Beta-hemolytic, Alpha hemolytic)? Alpha hemolytic
What color will strep pneumo display if grown on blood agar? What causes this color? Are very mucoid looking (glistening, goopy) and around the colonies look Green due to breakdown of hemoglobin by pneumolysin
What causes certain strains of bacteria which look glistening and goopy on agar? polysaccharide (encapsulated organisms)
Streptoccoci pneumo is Bile (soluble or insoluble)? Soluble (autolytic enzymes elicited when bile is added)
What other autolytic enzyme inducing compound (aside from bile) will result in lysis of a colony in streptococci pneumo? Optochin
What are the different ways to detect polysaccharide capsules? Quellung reaction; latex agglutination; co-agglutination
What is co-agglutination? Killed staph aureas uses it's protein A to bind antibodies of polysaccharides
What are the surface adhesins for streptococcus pneumoniae? PspA and Choline-binding proteins
What is a major viral predisposing factor for Streptococci pneumonia infection? Influenza infection
What are the clinical manifestations of Pneumococcal pneumonia? Usually Lobar; sudden onset chills, fever, pleuritic pain, rusty collered sputum (always take blood cultures)
What are some other Streptococcus pneumonia infections of the upper respiratory tract (aside pneumonia)? otitis media, mastoditis, sinusitis
What are some extrapulmonary infections caused by S. pneumo (aside upper respiratory infections)? meningitis (especially due to skull fracture); septic arthritis; endocarditis
What do you treat acute otitis media caused by S. pneumonia? amoxicillin
What do you treat sinusitis caused by S. pneumonia in children and adults? amoxicillin (both); quinolones (adults)
What do you treat pneumococcal pneumonia? third generation cephalosporins
What do you treat meningitis caused by S. pneumo? vancomycin plus B-lactam
What vaccine is currently recommended for children to prevent S. pneumo? PCV13 - conjugated polysaccharides with 13 serotypes
What vaccine is recommended for adults , chronic and immunosuppresed patients (asthma and smokers) to prevent S. pneumo? 23PS - non-conjugated vaccine (all polyvalent polysacharride with 23 serotypes)
What is group A strep also commonly called? Streptococci pyogenes
This carbohydrate antigen is part of the cell wall of Strep pyogenes and often used in rapid detection tests? Lancefield group A antigen
Group A strep is (alpha-hemolytic, beta-hemolytic, non-hemolytic)? B-hemolytic (just like S. aureus)
Is group A strep sensitive to bacitracim? Yes
Group A strep is catalase (negative/positve)? Negative
Group A strep is PYR (positive or negative)? Positive (pyrrolidonyl arylamidase)
Can vaccines against the capsule of Group A strep be made? No; capsule has hyaluanic acids and thus it would react with human cells as well
What is the major virulence factor of strep pyogenes? M protein (binds to epidermis; anti-phagocytic)
Why don't we use protein M to make a vaccine against strep pyogenes? sequence homolgy between mammalian proteins (anti self)
What are some toxin mediated responses that S. pyogenes is capable of? scarlet fever and toxic-shock like syndrome (due to exotoxins)
What are some extracellular virulence factors made by group A strep? Pyrogenic exotoxins (superantigens); Streptolysin O; DNAase; Streptokinase; C5a peptidase
What does streptolysin O do and how is it clinically significant? (produced by S. pyogenes); lyses red blood cells; antigenic (antibodies in throat infections made can be detected by anti-streptolysin ASO test
This virulence factor is made by group A strep and is used by surgeons during enzymatic debridement? Streptokinase
What are the two general classes of diseases caused by group A strep? suppurative vs non-suppurative
What are the 2 non-suppurative diseases caused by group A strep? Rheumatic fever and Acute glomerulonephritis
What is a way to detect wether or not a person had a strep A infection who now presents with rheumatic fever /glomerulonephritis? Antibody titer to Streptolysin O or DNAases
What does the throat look like in Streptococcal pharyngitis? inflamamtion with petechia or small red spots on the soft palate
Strawberry tongue, circumoral pallor, desquamation. What bacteria cause the symptoms due to a toxin? Streptococal pyogenes (group A strep)
What do you use to treat streptococcal pharyngitis? penicillin
What type of pyodermas can S. pyogenes produce? impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, and necrotizing fasciitis
What is the differnce between toxic shock caused by Staph and Strep A? Strep A and toxin are in the blood (bacterimia) vs Staph where the bug is localized and making the toxin. (also necrotizing fasciitis present with group A strep)
What must patients with rheumatic fever be placed on for the rest of their lives? penicillin (prevent further antibody response to protein M and acute heart damage)
What neurological abnormalities, which is abrupt in onset, and episodic, is associated with group A strep infection? PANDAS syndrome (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with group A strep)
What treatment is given for group A strep infecitons? Penicillin G
What is the current most common cause of neonatal meningitis? Group B strep infections
Group B strep is catalase (positive or negative)? Negative
Group B strep is (alpha hemolytic; B hemolytic; non-hemolytic)? Beta hemolytic
Group B strep is bacitracin (insensitive or sensitive)? Insensitive
Group B strep will test positive or negative for CAMP? Positive (extracellular protein produced by group B that will react with a B lysin of S. aureus)
What is the treatment for group B strep? Penicillin G and aminoglycoside
What is given to a pregnant women with a history of a baby born with group B strep? Penicillin G
A baby is born with meningitis and you as a physician would like to rule out group A strep (you think its group B strep)? What test could you give? Bacitracin (group B will culture and grow because its resistant); CAMP (Broup B will be positive)
This organism is part of the normal flora of the gut, and a leading cause of hospital aquired secondary infection (due to catheters, etc)? Enterococci (facalis and faecium)
enterococci are (beta hemolytic; alpha hemolytic; non-hemolytic)? Alpha and NON (rarely beta)
Enterococci are catalase (negative or positive)? Negative (all strep)
What Streptococci is th eonly one to be able to survive Bile and Sodium chloride? Enterococci
Enterococci are PYR (negative/positive)? Positive
These two streptococci produce PYR. What is a lab test to separate the two? Enterococci and group A strep; (either Bile or hemolysis - group A is B hemolytic and degrades on bile)
What clinical syndromes are caused by enterococci? UTI, bacteremia, subacute endocarditis, and Wound and tissue infections
Viridans streptococci is (alpha hemolytic, beta hemolytic, non-hemolytic)? Alpha
Viridans streptococci is optochin (sensitive, resistant)? Resistant
Viridan streptococci is bile (sensitive, resistant)? resistant
Viridans streptococci is PYR (positive/negative)? Negative
What gram positive, catalase negative, alpha hemolytic organism is responsible for dentists to ask if you had previous heart disease, which, if you had a damaged heart valve would predispose you to one of the effects of this organism? Viridans streptococci
Which is part of the normal flora of the skin and nares (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, Both)? S. Aureus
Which causes Bullous impetigo (S. aureus, S. Pyogenes, Both)? S. Aurues
Which one causes food poisoning (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, Both)? S. aureus
Which one causes pharyngitis (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, Both)? S. pyogenes
Which one causes necrotizing fascitis (S. aurues, S. pyogenes, Both)? S. pyogenes
Which one is B hemolytic (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, Both)? BOTH
Which one is catalase negative (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, both)? S. pyogenes
Which one is a pus former (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, Both)? BOTH
Which one causes Impetigo (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, BOTH)? BOTH (S. aureus causes Bullous impetigo)
Which one causes toxic shock syndrome and associated bacteremia (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, BOTH)? S. pyogenes (S. aureus is localized and secreting the toxin)
Created by: lamsonma



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