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68WM6 Phase II Ch45

GI Disorders and Studies

musculo-membranous tube extending from the mouth to the anus, 30ft long alimentary canal/digestive tract
what does the digestive tract/ alimentary canal consist of? mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small intestine, large intestine, anus
coordinated, rhythmic, serial contraction of smooth muscle that forces food through the digestive tract, bile through the bile duct, and urine through the ureter peristalsis
what are the accessory organ of the GI system? teeth, tongue, salivary glands, live, gallbladder, pancreas
entrance to the digestive system, contains muscular appendage mouth
involved in chewing, swallowing, formation of speech tongue
tiny elevations on the surface of the tongue that contain taste buds papillae
differentiate between sweet, sour, bitter, salty sensations taste buds
mechanically shred and grind food teeth
teeth used for biting and cutting incisors
teeth for tearing and shredding canines
teeth for mastication, crushing and grinding food molars
three pairs of salivary glands? parotid, submandibular, sublingual
what is 90% water and secreted in the mouth saliva
how much saliva is secreted daily? 1000ml to 1500ml
major enzyme responsible for the initiation of carbohydrate metabolism? salivary amylase (ptyalin)
enzyme that destroys bacteria and protects the mucous membranes from infection and tooth decay? lysozyme
muscular collapsible tube, 10in long, extends from mouth through esophageal hiatus to the stomach? esophagus
what moves a bolus peristalsis
located in LUQ, inferior to diaphragm stomach
how much can the stomach hold? 1L
entrance to the stomach cardiac sphincter
exit to the stomach pyloric sphincter
where does the digestion of protein begin? the stomach
softens the connective tissue of meats, kills bacteria, activates pepsin hydrochloric acid
released to protect the stomach lining mucin
produced to allow the absorption of vitamin b12 intinsic factor
food that has been broken down, viscous semiliquid substance chyme
20 foot long tube, 1in diameter small intestine
beginning of the small intestine pyloric sphincter
end of the small intestine ilocecal valve
three major sections of the small intestine duodenum, jejunum, ileum
where does 90% of digestion occur? small intestine
what are intestinal juices composed of? bile and pancreatic juices
comes from the liver and breaks molecules into smaller droplets, enables digestive juices to complete their process bile
essential in breaking down proteins into their amino acids into their components, reducing dietary fats to glycerol and fatty acids, converting starches to simple sugars? pancreatic juices
millions of tiny fingerlike projections clustered over the entire mucous surface of the small intestine, responsible for absorbing products of digestion into the blood stream villi
lymph capillaries in the small intestines responsible for the absorption of metabolized fats lacteals
tube 2in in diameter, 5 ft long large intestine
what are the parts of the large intestine cecum, apendix, ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colons, rectum, anus
four major functions of the large intestine absorption, vitamin manufacture, feces formation, fecal expulsion
small wormlike tubular structure that dangles from the cecum veriform appendix
changes chyme into fecal material by releasing the remaining nutrients, sythesis of Vitamin K, normal blood clotting and production of some B vitamins bacteria in the large intestine
largest glandular organ in the body liver
how many lobes does the liver have? 2
where is the liver located? mostly RUQ, some in left epigastrium
how much blood is deliver to the liver every minute 1500ml
how is blood delivered to the liver portal vein and hepatic artery
yellow brown or green liquid produced by the cells of the liver, necessary for the metabolism of fats bile
how does bile travel to gallbladder? hepatic ducts
how much bile does the liver release every day? 500-1000ml
3 to 4in long located on the right inferior surface of the liver, bile is stored here until needed for fat digestion gallbladder
functions of the liver? blood coagulation, manufacturing of cholesterol and albumin, filtering old red blood cells, detoxifying poisons
maintain normal blood volume albumin
elongated gland that lies posterior to the stomach, has endocrine and exocrine duties pancreas
how much pancreatic juice is produced daily 1000-1500ml
what does pancreatic juice consist of? protease, lipase, amylase
what pancreatic enzyme digests proteins? protease (trypsin)
what pancreatic enzyme digests fats? lipase (steapsin)
what pancreatic enzyme digests carbohydrates? amylase (amylopsin)
a small orifice through which the gallbladder empties papilla of Vater
an alkaline substance contained in the pancreas, neutralizes the hydrochloric acid in the gastric juices sodium bicarbonate
what regulates food intake, stimulates the individual to eat, or to stop eating hypothalamus
Created by: ahughes0919