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WGU INC1 11/2010

Integrated Natural Science

Law or principle A general hypothesis or statement about the relationship of natural quantitites that has been tested over and over again and has not been Contradicted.
Scientific method An orderly method of gaining organizing and applying new knowledge.
Theory A synthesis of a large body of information that encompasses well-tested hypotheses about certain aspects of natural world.
Fact A phenomenon about which competent observers can agree.
Technology The means of solving practical problems by applying the findings of science.
Newton The scientific unit of force.
Air Resistance The force of friction acting on an object due to its motion through air.
Kilogram The unit of mass. Equals the mass of 1 liter of water at 4C.
Velocity The speed of an object with specification of its direction of motion.
Inertia The property of things to resist changes in motion.
Acceleration The rate at which velocity changes with time; the change in velocity may be in magnitude or in direction or both. It is usually measure in m/s2.
Mass The quantitiy of matter in an object.
Speed The distance traveled per time.
Hypothesis An educated guess or a reasonable explanation.
Force Simply stated a push or pull.
Support Force The force that supports an object against gravity often called the normal force.
Vector quantity A quantity that specifies direction as well as magnitude.
Science The collective findings of humans about nature and a process of gathering and organizing knowledge about nature.
Friction The resistive force that opposes the motion or attempted motion of an object through a fluid or past another object with which it is in contact.
Weight Simply stated the force of gravity on an object.
Control A test that excludes the variable being investigated in a scientific experiment.
Net Force The combination of all forces that act on an object.
Equilibrium rule Rule which states that the vector sum of forces acting on a nonaccelerating object equals zero: SF=0
Psudoscience A theory or practice that is considered to be without scientific foundation but purports to use the method of science.
Principle of Falsifiability For a hypothesis to be considered scientific it must be testable-it must in priciple be capable of being proven wrong.
System a combonation of components form a complex organization.
inductive reasoning generalizations based on a large number of specific observations.
Deductive reasoning logic flows in the opposite direction from general to the specific.
Biology is the study of living organisms
Chemistry concerned with the composition structure and properties of matter as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions.
Physics the study of motion or change
Geology the study of the solid and liquid matter that is the earth.
Astronomy one of the oldest sciences the study of celestial objects and phenomena that originate outside the earths atmosphere.
Limitations of science Science can not determine valueScience can not answer questions of moralitySuper-natural
Ways that simple machines affect force output? transfers a force from one place to anotherchanges the direction of a forceincreases the magnitude of a forceincreases the distance or speed of a force
Examples of simple machines lever wheel and axel pulley inclined plane wedge
Grams measures mass base unit is kilogram
liters measures volume
micrometer one millonth of a metere also known as a micron
Km/hr kilometeres per hour is unit of both speed and velocity.
millimeters a unit of lenght equal to the one thousandth of a meter.
ampere the SI unit of electric current. The measure of the amount of electric charge passing a pint per unit time.
ph units instrument used to test the acidity or alkalinity of a liquid
Volts measures voltage
ohms measures resistance
joules the derived unit of energy in the International system of units.
millivolts a unit of potential equal to one thousandths of a volt
nanometer one thousand-millonth of a meter
kilogram unit of mass equal to 1000 grams
Kelvin a unit of absolute temperature one kelvin degree is equal to one celsius degree
meters standard unit of length
watts a system unit of power equal to one joule per second
Inverse-square law Law relating the intensity of an effect to inverse square of the distance from the cause: Intensity- 1/distance2.
Ellipse The sum of the distances from any point on the path to two points called foci is a constant; also the oval path followed by a satellite.
Projectile Any object that moves through the air or through space under the influence of gravity.
Parabola The curved path followed by a profectile near the Earth under the influence of gravity only
Satellite A projectile or small body that orbits a larger body.
Tangential velocity Velocity that is parallel(tangent) to a curved path.
Centripetal force Any force that is directed at right angles to the path of a moving object and tends to produce circular motion.
Gravitational Force The force of attraction between all masses in the universe.
Nebular theory the idea that the sun and planets formed from a cloud of gas and dust a nebula
Electrical force positive and negative attract eachother and repel themselves.
Direct current an electrical current flowing in one direction only
Alternating current alternates back and forth
projectile motion path defined by a projectile
resistor an electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current
Electromagnet type of magnet whose magnetic field is produced by the flow of electric current
Potential Energy the mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its position; stored energy
amplitude height of a wave
wavelength The distance between consecutive crests of a wave
frequency Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time
refraction the change in direction of a propagating wave (light or sound) when passing from one medium to another
diffraction when light passes sharp edges or goes through narrow slits the rays are deflected and produce fringes of light and dark bands
reflection propagating wave (light or sound) being thrown back from a surface
spectral lines
Physics the science of matter and energy and their interactions
cosmology study of the origin and nature of the universe
cosmic background radiation (CMB)
Main-sequence sta Burns hydrogen as its primary fuel
Red Giant Star Burns helium as its primary fuel
White Dwarf Star Near the final stages of evolution
thermonuclear fusion in a helium-burning star Two helium nuclei are combined to form one hydrogen nucleus, releasing light energy. B. Two helium nuclei are burned in the presence of oxygen to produce four hydrogen nuclei, releasing carbon dioxide and light energy. C. Two helium nuclei are separat
Order of planets from the sun My Very Excellent Mother Just Sent Us Nine Pizzas
Define These a. Grams b. Liters - Volume c. Micrometers - Lenth d. km/hr - Length e. millimeters - Length f. meters/second/second (m/s2) g. amperes h. pH units – potential of Hydrogen 1-14 7 = water
Define These too i. Newtons - Force j. Volts – electromotive force k. ohms – resistance l. joules - energy m. millivolts - volts n. nanometers – light waves o. kilograms - Mass p. Kelvin – Color of light q. grams per cubic centimeter(g/cm3), r. meters - Length
Created by: b430572