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Oncology Terminology

Differerentiation the process where a cell changes in structure and function as it matures
Well-Differentiated Cancer cells that closely resemble the tissue of orgin
Anaplasia (undifferentiated) Reverting to a less developed state; loss of structural organization or differentiation of cells, and useful function of a cell.
Absolute Neurtophil Count (ANC) the real number of white blood cells that are neutrophils
Adjuvant therapy Use of treatment with no evidence of metastases. It's used after primary surgical treatment
Apoptosis Programmed cell death according to the genetic limitation of the lifespan of a cell. This can be important in limiting the growth of tumors
Bands An immature developing leukocyte in the circulating blood
B-Cells B-lymphocyte originates in the bone marrow. Precursor to a plasma cell. Protects against bacterial infection; lymphoctyes that transform into plasma cells and secrete antibodies.
CA-125 An antigen produced by epithelial tissues. Tumor marker for epithelial cancers, especially ovarian cancer. Used mainly to assess the response to treatment
Cancer in SITU Early-stage cancer; before the invasion of surrounding tissue; usually implies total cancer removal with surgical incision or biospy.
Carinogenesis the transformation of normalcells into cancer cells. The processof initiation, promotion, and progression.
CEA Caricinoembryonic Antigen- tumor marker for colon cancer, and other abdominal cancers
Cytoprotective Medications Administered immediately before RT or chemo to prevent severe reactions to the drug (ex. Mesna given with Ifex)
Erythropoetin A hormone secreted bythe kidneys to stimulate bone marrow to make RBCs
Extravasation Leakage or infiltration of a vesicant chemotherapy agent into local tissue. Can result in tendon and nerve damage and may progress 6 mos. after incident.
FIGO (staging) Federation of Gynocology and Obsteterics
HER2 Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2
Metastasis the spread of cells from a primary turmor via the lymphatic system or circulatory systerm to distant body parts where such cells give rise to tumor mass.
Mucositis Inflammation of any mucus membrane
Nadir The period of time when cancer treatment medications have their most profound effects on the bone marrow.
Neoplasm An abnormal mass of cells typically exhibiting progressive and uncontrolled growth; classifies by the cell type from which they originate and their biologic behavior.
Oncogene Pieces of genetic information located in the cell. Carcinogens may activate oncogenes and alter the regulatory mechanisms of the cell.
PAP Prostatic Acid Phosphatase
Plasma Cell A cell that originates from B-cell Lymphoctyes and secretes an antibody
PSA Prostatic Serum Antigen
Rescue Agents Administered subsequently to chemo or RT to counteract effects of the medication/treatment (ex. Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factors)
Stem Cell a cell with unlimited reproductive capacity. Stem cells have the potential to develop into several diffrent types of mature cells.
Stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth- including lips, tongue, and mucous membranes
T-Cells Originate from stem cells. Monitors the immune system. Acts directly on antigens to destroy them.
Tumor Marker a product produced by a cancer cell or in response to the presence of cancer, which may be released into the circulation or may remain associated with the cancer cell.
Vesicant any agent that has potential to cause blistering or tissue necrosis when extravasated
Xerostomia Dry mouth- usually caused by salivary impairment caused by cancer treatment.
Pancytopenia reduction in all cellular elements of the blood
Adenocarcinoma A malignant tumor arising from a gladular organ
Hyperplasia Excessive proliferation of normal cells in the normal tissue arrangement of an organ
Carcinogen Any substance or agent that produces cancer or increases the risk of developing cancer in humans or animals
Leukopenia Abnormal decrease of WBC usually below 5000/mm3
Erythropoiesis The formation of RBC
Carinogenisis Transformation of normal cells into cancer cells often result of chemical, viral, radioactive damage to genes
Granulocytosis an abnormal increase in the number of granulocytes
Adenoma benign tumor made of epithelial cells, usually arranged like gland
Myelosuppression Inhibition of bone marrow function.
Created by: Esimon