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SIUE Gas Laws

chem and physics

Mole used to express the gram molecular weight of a substance
Avogadro's Law the number of particles in one mole of a substance. How many moles in a particle
Fick's Law of Diffusion see card
Fick's law of diffusion applied to diffusion of a gas across a fluid membrane.
According to Fick's Law, the thicker the membrane The slower the diffusion (diffusion rate is inversely porportional to the distance over which diffusion must take place, Membrane thick or thin)
Apply Fick's Law to the patient with pulmonary edema. What happens, and tx? pulmonary edema patients have thicker membrane for gases including O2 to diffuse through from all of the fluid which causes the difficulty in breathing. Tx with lasix which pulls of the fluid and thins out the membrane, making it easier for O2 to diffuse
Graham's Law equation? see card (KE= 1/2 mv2, and others...
Graham's Law states that the average KE of the molecules of two samples of different gases at the same temp is identical.
A larger particle (larger mass) crosses membrane faster or slower? slower
The gas with the largest molar mass will take longer to diffuse across same membrane based on Graham's Law
Ideal Gas Law combines 3 primitive gas laws, roughly accurate for gases
Ideal gas law becomes innaccurate when there are higher pressures and lower temperatures
All gases act alike until they reach extremely high or extremely low pressures
A gas under high pressure causes pressure to push gas down, extreme pressure can cause gas moleculs to act like a liquid. Molecules become closer together under increasing pressure
Gas at freezing temp ats as a liquid.
Ideal Gas Law equations PV=nRT (p=pressure, v= volume, n= number of moles, r= molar gas constant, t= temperature)
Boyle's Law When TEMPERATURE remains constant, volume and pressure react inversely. PV=k. At a constant temp an increase the pressure, pushes down on gas, causing volume to decrease.
Example of Boyle's Law in daily use Ambu bag, or compressed air in a cylinder.
Boyles Law equation P1V1=P2V2
Charles Law pressure remains constant as temperature and volume change (temp & volume have porportional relationship. If volume goes up, temp goes up)
Charles' Law equation T/V = k (pressure) or T1/V1 = T2/V2
Gay-Lussacs Law volume remains consant and temperature & pressure change (temp & pressure have linear relationship & directly porportional)
Ex. Gay Lussacs Law You have the same volume in a tank, add head and you have increased pressure or vise versa
Dalton's Law avogadro - the identity of a gas is unimportant in determining the P-V-T properties of the gas. Gas mixtures behaving in the same way as single, pure gas.
Ideal gas law predicts how P, V, T of a gas depends upon the number of moles of the gas
Dalton's Law deals with partial pressure and states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of all the particles. Can determine the pressure of a specific gas in a mixture
Name this law: The mass of a gas that dissolves in a def. volume of liquid is directly proportiona to the pressure of the gas Henry's Law
Ex of Henry's Law How much O2 getting to lungs. adding supplemental O2, will push more O2 (increase PP) to dissolve into the blood stream. Carbonated beverages
According to Henyr's Law, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly porportional to the partial pressure of the gas overlying the liquid
Gas solubility is effected by molecule size, vapor pressure, & overlying partial pressure
Name this law: increased pressure difference = increased wall tension Law of Laplace
According to the Law of LaPlace, the thicker the wall = _____ tension & the larger radius = _____ tension thicker wall = LESS tension, larger the radius = MORE tension (ex dialted cardiomyopathy: distended ventricular wall radius increases)
As you blow up the balloon, as it gets larger what happens to the tension tension becomes greater, according to Law of Laplace
Law of Laplace equation T= (P * R)/M T= tension in walls, P= pressure difference across wall, R= radius, M= thickeness of wall
Law of Laplace: the tension in the wall of a blood vessel is proportional to radius.
A blood vessel with an aneurysm has ____ wall tension GREATER wall tension, per Law of LaPlace
Greater ventricular filling during diastole produces ____ wall tension in end diastole GREATER, per Law of LaPlace, also will increased the workload of heart.
Starlings Law stretch in the ventricle; greater the stretch the larger the stroke volume or contraction (to a certain point, can become over stretched then will have dysfunction)
Name this Law: Explains how pressure, tube radius, tube length & fluic viscosity contribute to laminar flow Pouiselulle's Law
An IV, the flow is increased by smaller gauge size, meaning an increased catheter diameter (use 16 vs 22), decreasing the length of the needle/catheter, raising the IV bag per Pouiseulle's Law
Anemic patients have increased flow because decreased viscosity, their blood is thinner (Pouiseulle's Law)
Pouiseulli Law equation pi (pressure difference)(radius)4/B (viscosity)(lengeth)
Biggest factor that can effect laminar flow in Pouiseulli's equation radius (r)4
Name this law: calculationof resistance "R", of flow through a tube Ohms Law
Ohm's Law equation R = (pressure in - pressure out), allows for calculation of SVR
Venturi effect explains the use of nebs, venturi O2 masks, jet ventilators, injectors. When fluid flows through a constricted region of tube (venturi tube) the velocity of flow increases & the lateral pressure decreases (Bernoulli effect)
A reynolds number over 2000 = turbulent flow
Bernoulii's principle lateral pressure of fluid flowing through a constricted segment of tubing is decreased, increase in velocity happens simultaneously w/ decreased in pressure
Bernoulli's principle w/venturi effect paassing air through a narrow venturi tube creates a low presure: piccks upu gas as it passes over an area of higher pressure
gases liquify if sufficient pressure is applied & the temp is below a crtical value called critical temperature
As gas cannot be liquified if the temperature is above the critical temp
Critical Temp of Nitrous & O2 39.5 C & & -119C
a physical process in which the temperature of gas is decreased by letting the gas expaned is called Joule Thompson effect
As a cylinder of compressed gas empties what happens to the cylinder it cools; condensation & ice crystals may be seen --- Joule Thompson
saturated vapor pressure is only in closed container: a pressure at any given temperature in which the vapor of that substance is in equilibrium with it's liquid or solid forms
Higher the temperature = lower/higher the saturated vapor pressure higher the saturated vapor pressure (greater temp more vapor)
If it is an open container vapor pressure is called partial vapor pressure
Boiling point is when vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure (dependant on heat and pressure)
Air componenets in order from largest to smallest nitrogen 78.80%, O2 = 20.94%, Argon .93%, carbond dioxide = .03%
Saturated water vapor pressure is 47mmHg used with open systems only
partial pressures from highest to lowest des = 669, halothan = 243, inflourane = 239, enflurane = 175, sevo = 170 mmHg
MAC minimal alveolar concentration, at which 50% of patients will not respond to surgical stimulation
Standard of Care: patient should never recieve less than ___ % of O2 concentration during general anesthesia 30
Created by: asaranita