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Org. Chem.

SIUE- Nicole's Flashcards on Kenvin's ORG!

What is the smallest part of matter that represents a particular element? Atom
All atoms are composed of these same subatomic particles, what are they? Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
What subatomic particle distinguishes the characteristics of an atom? The Proton
Where is the Proton, Neutron, and Electron located and what charge to they carry? Proton has a + charge, located in the nucleus with the Neutron that has a neutral charge. The Electron is located outside the nucleus in the orbits and has a - charge.
Atoms attempt to have how many electrons in their outermost orbit and how do they attain this? They attempt to have 8 electrons in their outermost orbit. 1)Either give up electron 2)Gain an electron 3)Share and electron
There are always 2 electrons in the first orbit, and how many in each additional orbit? 8 electrons in each additional orbit.
A subatomic particle with a + charge will attract or repel another subatomic particle with a + charge? A - Charge? A + will repel a + charge and a + will attract a - charge.
What makes an atom neutral? Protons=Electrons
What does the mass # represent? The atomic wt. of the atom which is the sum of the protons + neutrons.
What is the atomic # representing? The # of protons.
In Carbon, the # of protons=6, and the # of neutrons=6. What is the Mass # and atomic #? Mass # is protons + neutrons which is 6+6=12. Atomic # is # of protons which is 6.
Cl has the mass # of 35, and the atomic # of 17. What is the number of protons and neutrons? The # of protons is 17, and to find out the # of neutrons, you would need to take the atomic mass 35-17=18. There is 18 neutrons.
What is an isotope? An atom with the same # of protons and electrons but differ in the # of neutrons. They have the same characteristics of another atom, b/c they have the same # of protons, but different atomic wt. b/c they differ in # of neutrons.
What is the outermost and most reactive electrons of an atom? Valance electron.
The valance electrons helps to give us a measure of __ formed by the atoms of a given element? The # of chemical bonds
By looking at the families in the periodic table that are marked w/ the roman numeral and letter A what does the group # represent? The group # represents the # of valance electrons.
What is the quantum mechanical model used for? Used to find the probable location of an electron in an atom. 4 quantum numbers are used to describe the characteristics of electrons and their orbitals.
Describe the principle quantum # n. Average distance of the orbital from the nucleus and the energy of the electron in an atom. Larger # means more energy, and larger orbital. N is the shell containing the outermost electron.
Angular Momentum Quantum Number l? Describes the shape of the orbital. l= 0=s, 1=p, 2=D, 3=F
Magnetic Quantum Number ml? Describes how the orbitals are oriented in space. Subshells have the same energy but are oriented differently in space.
Spin Quantum Number ms? Describes the direction the electron is spinning. Only two values are used, +1/2 and -1/2. For each subshell there can only be two electron! One has a + spin and the other has a - spin.
For every bond formed what occurs, and are atoms destroyed or created in this process? When bonds are formed reactions occur and atoms are NEITHER created nor destroyed.
In an exothermic reaction what is released? In an endothermic reaction what is absorbed? Exothermic rxn. releases heat. Endothermic rxn. absorbs heat.
In regards to a bond, the attraction is inversely proportional to what? the distance between the center charge. The stronger the attraction, the farther the distance.
This type of bond forms with the complete transfer of an electron and requires energy for this process? Ionic bond
A cation or anion is formed during this type of bond. Ionic bond
An example of an ionic bond would be NaCl, Why? Na- has one valence electron in outer shell, while Cl has 7 valance electrons in their outer shell.
Some fun facts about Ionic Compounds. 1)Used to form simple salts. 2)Atoms with significantly different electronegativity.
What does electronegativity mean? Not sharing the electron equally. Higher the electronegativity the more attracted the electron is to that particular atom. eg.(Na+=0.93, Cl-=3.16) Na+ outer electron will more attracted to Cl than Na.
What type of bond share electrons? Covalent Bonds
Do covalent bonds require energy and is it more or less than an ionic bond? Yes, covalent bonds require energy, but they require much less than ionic bonds.
How do covalent bonds share their electrons equally? Overlap of the individual atomic orbits. Electrons in each atom tend to become attracted to the positive nucleus of the other atom.
What is the net charge of a symmetrical covalent (pure covalent) bond? Net neutral charge. Few molecules form complete symmetrical bonds.
Most covalent bonds demonstrate? Polarization
An example of a covalent bond is carbon and chlorine (CHCl3). Electronegativity of Carbon=2.55, and Chlorine=3.96. Close electronegativity means the outermost electrons are almost equally attracted to the positive nucleus of each atom.
A hydrogen bond is a bond? A bond b/t two 1 s atomic orbitals. Electrons in each atom are attracted to the + nucleus of the other atom. They continue to come together until the nuclei become to repel each other.
Sigma bonds are bonds formed by? Bonds formed by the overlap of s+s, p+p, s+p, or d+d atomic orbitals. The bonding electron density is concentrated along the axis of the bond-strongest covalent bond.
pi bonds are formed by? The bonding of sideways (parallel) overlaping, typically the overlap of the p orbitals.
Single bonds have__? Double bonds have__? Triple bonds have__? Single bonds have one sigma bond. Double bonds have one sigma and one pi bond. Triple bonds have one sigma and two pi bonds.
The study of carbon and its compounds? Organic chemistry
Why is Carbon unique? It's ability to form bonds to other carbon atoms.
Carbon can also form stable covalent bonds with many other elements such as? Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur.
Why is carbon able to form a great number of compounds? Because it has the ability to form strong covalent bonds to each other, and the it's ability to form strong bonds with atoms of other nonmetals.
What forms the strongest covalent bonds in nature? Carbon
Is tetravalent, has 4 electrons in it's outer shell, always forms 4 bonds, and can form multiple covalent bonds? Carbon
When do organic molecules contain polar covalent bonds? When Carbon bonds to an element from the right or left side of the periodic table.
What are isomers? Different compounds that have the same molecular formula, but differ by which atom is bonded to which, or in how the atoms are arranged in three-dimensional space.
Characteristics of Isomers... Occur in organic compounds that have more than 3 carbon atoms, same atomic weight, different physical characteristics.
Constitutional Isomers Compounds with the same molecular formula but with their atoms connected in different arrangements. They have different structures, different physical properties, and different physiological properties.
Stereoisomers Attached in same sequence but different spatial arrangement. Differ on in the 3-D orientation of their atoms. Includes Diastereomers, and Enantiomers.
Diastereomers are... Stereoisomers that are NOT mirror images of each other and include Cis-Trans Isomers and Confromational Isomers.
Same chemical formula but rotation around C=C does not occur, bc of double bond. Cis-Trans Isomer. Cis-functional group is on the same side, Trans-functional group is on the opposite side.
Conformational Isomers... The two parts of a molecule joined by a carbon-carbon single bond are free to spin around the bond, giving rise to an infinite number of 3-D geometries. Not really isomers, but rotamers!
Entantiomer Can't be superimposed, seen as a mirror image, rotate in opposite directions, have the same physical properties and solubility, but have different physiological properties.
Have identical chemical and physical properties, except for their ability to rotate plane-polarized light (+/-). They rotate it in equal amounts but opposite directions. Enantiomer
Racemic Entantiomer A mixture of equal parts of an optically active isomer and its enantiomer and has a net rotation of plane-polarized light of zero. Equal amounts of Dextro-isomer and Levo-isomer.
Two types of enantiomers? Dextro-isomer (d-isomer)-R-rectus=right spin and Levo-isomer (l-isomer)-S-sinister=left spin.
Organic molecules have two parts.. Inert carbon backbone, and one or more functional groups.
What is a functional group? Set of atoms within a larger molecule that have a characteristic structure and chemical behavior.Largely defines the chem. and phys. properties.
Do functional groups have the same or different chemical reactions from molecule to molecule? They tend to undergo the same reactions in every molecule.
What functional group contains only hydrogen and carbon atoms? Hydrocarbon Functional Groups
What are the hydrocarbon functional groups? Alkanes=1 bond, Alkenes=2 bonds, Alkynes=3 bonds, and Arenes (aromatic compounds).
Are hydrocarbons flammable? YES!
What is the simplest of the organic compounds? Alkanes- has a C-C single bond. Have no functional groups, relatively unreactive.
CH4? An alkane Methane. Has no functional groups.
Alkanes are named according to how many carbons and only have single bonds, what are their names? Methane-1 carbon, ethane-2 carbons, propane-3 carbons, butane-4 carbons, pentane-5 carbons,hexane-6 carbons...
What type of group branches off the main chain? An alkyl group. The H+ is replaced by alkyl group primary(attached to 1 C), secondary(attached to 2 C), tertiary(attached to 3 C), or quaternary(attached to 4 C).
This alkyl group does not pass blood-brain & placental barrier as easily, not very lipid soluble. Quaternary carbon
Contains carbon-carbon double bond, have functional groups. Alkenes- Ethene is simplest alkene.
Carbon-Carbon triple bonds, have functional group. Alkynes- Ethyne is simplest alkyne.
Alkanes having a single bond b/t carbon atoms allows for 4 different bonds, is this saturated or unsaturated? Saturated
Alkenes that have a double bond b/t carbons are saturated? True or False? False, unsaturated
Alkynes with triple bonds b/t carbons are unsaturated or saturated? Unsaturated
Six member carbon ring with three double bonds? Aromatics, very stable and also called arenes.
What is the functional group in aromatics? Bnezene ring.
Organic compounds that contain one or more halogen atoms? Organohalogen Compounds
What are some of the Halogens that are found in group 7A of the periodic table? F,Cl,Br, and I.
Common anesthetic agents? Haloalkanes
Functional groups based on water are? Alcohols- R-O-H. O-H is the functional hydroxyl group. Ethers- R-O-R oxygen bridge b/t two alkyl groups is the functional group.
Name the anesthetic gases that are halogenated ethers... Enflurane, Isoflurane, Sevoflurane.
Amines functional groups are derived from? Ammonia (NH3).
Medications such as Ketamine, Dopamine, and Epinephrine are? Amines
Carbonyl Functional Groups contains a carbon the is double bonded with what? Oxygen.
Aldehydes Have an alkyl group and a hydrogen atom bonded to a carbonyl group.
Ketones Have two alkyl groups bonded to a carbonyl group.
Carboxylic Acids Have a carboxyl group
Esters Derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol.
Amides Derived from an amine and a carboxylic acid.
Alkanes and cycloalkanes are functional groups having what? Hydrocarbons with no double or triple bonds.
What are the rules of Nomenclature? 1)Define the longest continuous C chain.2)Name groups attached to chain.3)# chain consecutively, start end nearest substituent group.4)Designate location of substituent group by # and name.5)Assemble name of groups in ABC order.
Almost all anesthetic agents are organic compounds except? Nitrous- is an inorganic compound.
Halogenation of hydrocarbons makes what? Inhalation gases
Halothane is a halogenated hydrocarbon, while the rest are hologenated__? Hlogenated Ethers
Amides and esters make up __, while oxidation of alcohols is for__? 1)Local anesthetics 2)Preservatives
Unstable and flammable Alkanes
Halogenation of hydrocarbons is when a hydrogen atom is replaced by a halogen atom F,Cl,Br. Why is this done? Because alkanes are highly flammable and unstable and this creates a highly potent, nonflammable gas.
Enflurane & Isoflurane are the same in that....and they differ in that... They are both isomers, have same chemical structure and weight, but differ in physical characteristics.
Halothane is an ethane with? F,Cl,& Br.
Three gases that are methy ethyl ethers. Isoflourane, desflurane,and sevoflurane.
Isoflurane Common IUPAC name is 1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl 1,1-difluoromethyl ether
Desflurane common IUPAC name is Difluoromethyl 1-fluoro 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl ether
Sevoflurane common IUPAC name is Fluoromethyl 2,2,2-trifluoro-1-ethyl ether
Local anesthetics in which hydrogen is replaced with amide group is.. Amides, Lidocaine, bupicacaine
Natural epinephrine is what kind of isomer? l-isomer, has greater beta 1 (cardiac) than beta 2 (pulmonary) activity.
Racemic epinephrine is used as what and has what kind of isomer? Used as a nebulizer, it has equal l & d isomers, and get more pulmonary effects with less tachycardia.
Created by: ngawlik