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Pharm

Test 2 Endocrine 2

QuestionAnswer
What is the function of the thyroid? Responsible for the secretion of three hormones essential for the proper regulation of metabolism
What are the three hormones that regulate metabolism? Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3), Calcitonin (parathyroid)
Thyroid acts on the body to ____ BMR Increase
Thyroid regulates what three things in the heart? Rate, contraction force, cardiac output
What does the thyroid do to the ventilation rate? Increases
The thyroid ______ heat Produces
TSH secreted from ______, signals the _____ to produce hormone. When thyroid hormone levels rise, TSH levels ____. When thyroid hormone levels decline, TSH ____, “telling thyroid to get to work”.This is a negative feedback mechanism Pituitary, thyroid, declines, rise
What blood levels are used to diagnose hypothyroidism? T3, T4 TSH blood levels
What causes hypothyroidism? Disease or destruction of thyroid gland tissue
What age group is hypothyroidism most common in? Women over 50
Congenital hypothyroidism is called Cretinism
What can be a result of cretinism? Mental and physical retardation
What is cretinism screened? Newborn screening
With hypothyroidism the face and eyelids are Puffy
With hypothyroidism what happens to skin and hair Dry, hair loss
With hypothyroidism what happens to energy level Lethargic
With hypothyroidism, what happens to tolerance to cold? Decreases
With hypothyroidism what happens to speech and memory Slow, forgetfulness
With hypothyroidism, what happens to bowel Becomes constipated
What drug is used to treat hypothyroidism? Levothyroxine ( synthetic T4)
How long does it take hypothyroidism drug to reach therapeutic levels? Weeks
Before giving hypothyroidism med, check ____ AP
Give hypothyroidism med at what time of day and one what type of stomach? Early, full
Is treatment for hypothyroidism short term or long term? Long term
Hypothyroidism requires periodic_____ Blood testing
What types of drugs may need to be decreased when taking an hypothyroidism med? Anticoagulants
What types of drugs may need to be increased when taking a hypothyroidism med? Oral antidiabetics
Hold hypothyroidism med is pulse is over 100
What are adverse effects of thyroid therapy? Chest pain, palpitations, increased blood pressure and heart rate, Headache, nervousness, insomnia, Nausea, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, Weight loss, fever, intolerance to heat
Hyperthyroidism is most common in Women
What four things can cause hyperthyroidism? Tumors, goiter, thyroiditis, Grave’s disease
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism mirror Hyper metabolism
What are signs/symptoms of hyperthyroidism? Weight loss, weakness, heat intolerance, diaphoresis, fatigue, palpitations, rapid heartbeat, nervousness, irritability, diarrhea, altered menses, exophthalmos
What are three ways to treat hyperthyroidism? Surgical removal of part of the thyroid, radioactive destruction of part of the thyroid, radioactive iodine- oral or IV
Anti-thyroid drugs are _______which _____ SNS effects Beta blocking, decrease
Anti-thyroid drugs treat symptoms of what three things? Excessive sweating, tremors and nervousness
Anti-thyroid drugs inhibit coupling of ____ to ____, thus prevents the synthesis of ________. Tyrosine, iodine, thyroid hormone
PTU keeps _____ from becoming_____ in the blood stream. T4, T3
What is a side effect of anti-thyroid drugs? Skin rash
What is a potentially fatal side effect of anti-thyroid drugs? Bone marrow depression with reduced WBC’s and platelets
Type of drug that inhibits the release of thyroid hormones Iodine solutions
Beta rays emitted by isotope; dissipates in about ___ days. Destroys _______. 56, thyroid tissue
Patient teaching regarding anti-thyroid drugs- how long does it take to achieve effects? Several weeks to a year to achieve effects
Patient teaching regarding anti-thyroid drugs: requires ______ testing and ______ adjustments. Periodic blood, drug dosage
Patient teaching regarding anti-thyroid drugs: avoid food and other drugs that contain___________. Iodine
Patient teaching regarding anti-thyroid drugs: may cause patient to develop Hypothyroidism
Patient teaching regarding anti-thyroid drugs: what seven things should the patient watch out for and report? Fever, sore throat, unusual bleeding or bruising, rash, jaundice or vomiting
What are the two adrenal glands? Cortex, medulla
Adrenal gland that secretes corticosteroids Adrenal cortex
Adrenal gland that secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine Adrenal medulla
Glucocorticoids have what type of action? Anti-inflammatory
Glucocorticoids help metabolize Carbohydrate, protein, fat
Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids help maintain Normal blood pressure
What are the stress effects of glucocorticoids? Secreted in higher levels during the body’s ‘fight or flight’ response to stress, and is responsible for several stress-related changes in the body
Mineralocorticoids secrete Aldosterone
Mineralocorticoids help regulate what two things in the blood? Potassium levels and pH of blood
Mineral corticosteroids reabsorb what two things? Sodium and water
Mineral corticosteroids excrete what? Potassium
Are corticosteroids stored in the body? No, created as needed
How are corticosteroids regulated? Negative feedback system
Can the lack of corticosteroids be life threatening? Yes
What is an adrenal crisis? Medical emergency from lack of cortisol
Whe would a corticosteroid be used? Think as many things as you can ( See notes for whole list) Autoimmune, Dermatologic diseases, Renal , GI diseases , Exacerbations of respiratory illnesses , Organ transplant, Cancer, leukemia, Rheumatic disorders , Adrenal insufficiency, Any conditions with swelling and inflammation, Allergic reactions, Cerebral
What are five ways that corticosteroids can be administered? Orally,IV, IM, Topically, Inhalers, Nasally
What adverse effects can corticosteroids have on the cardio system? (2) Heart failure, hypertension
What adverse effects can corticosteroids have on the CNS? (3) Convulsions, headache, insomnia
What adverse effects can corticosteroids have on the endocrine system?(3) Growth suppression, menstrual irregularities, hyperglycemia
What adverse effects can corticosteroids have on the GI?(3) Peptic ulcer, bleeding, pancreatis
What adverse effects can corticosteroids have on the integument? (5) Fragile skin, petechiae, ecchymosis, poor wound healing, facial hair
What adverse effects can corticosteroids have on the musculoskeletal system? (2) Muscle loss, osteoporosis
What adverse effect can corticosteroids have on the immune system? (1) Increased susceptibility to infection
What adverse effects can corticosteroids have on the ocular system? (3) Increased IOP, glaucoma, cataracts
What effect do corticosteroids have on weight? Gain weight
What effect do corticosteroids have on menstruation? Causes irregularities
What three things need to be monitored for someone who is on a corticosteroid? Vitals, BP, signs of infection
When monitoring skin condition in individual taking corticosteroids, look for Edema
What three lab values should be assessed in someone taking corticosteroids? Serum Na+, K+ and glucose
Assess patient taking corticosteroids for history of what two conditions Ulcer disease, cardiac conditions
People taking corticosteroids should avoid contact with people who have Infections
When taking corticosteroids, report any sign of Infection
What three things should you change in diet if taking a corticosteroid? Decrease salt intake, increase potassium, increase calcium
Weight gain in corticosteroids should be reported if more than ___ lbs a week 5
Discontinuing a corticosteroid rapidly can cause Adrenal crisis
If taking a corticosteroid by mouth, take it with Food
Created by: anastasia158