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SIUE-Nicole's Flashcards

Define acid base balance Concentration of H+ ions. Regulated by the body, and the balance b/t intake (production) & net removal of H+ ions from the body.
The range on the pH scale is mostly used from 0-14, can the pH go above or below these numbers? Yes, in both directions. It can go below 0 or above 14.
The pH scale is the measure of? The activity of H+ ions in a solution, its acidity or alkalinity.
In a neutral solution, what equals what? Hydrogen ions=hydroxide ions
What is the pH of water? Do we assume this as neutral? 7, yes we assume water as neutral.
H3O+ (hydronium) becomes what? Hydroxide (OH-)
When water is left out in an open container what happens? CO2 dissolves in the water and makes it acidic.
What is the water equilibrium principle? Assuming that water is neutral, the addition of exponents of H+ & OH- ion concentration always equal the exponent -14.
What two ions are ALWAYS present in every solution? H+ and OH- ions.
If there are excess H+ ions in a solution is it acidic or basic? Acidic
If there are excess OH- ions in a solution is it acidic or basic? Basic
If the H+ ion exponent is 10, what is the OH- ion exponent? 4, they have to equal 14.
What measure the H+ ions in a solution? pH
What produces H+ ions? Acids
Acid is a pH less than what? < 7
If you were given a pH of 7, what would the H+ ion concentration be? 0.0000001--> Put 1 over what the pH is and divide. 1/7.
What is the H+ ion concentration of HCL with a pH of 2? 0.01--> Put 1 over pH and it is 1/2.
Is 0.0000001 or 0.01 more acidic and how do you know? 0.01 is more acidic because it is closer to one. The bigger the #, the more acidic and the more H+ ions are completely dissociated.
Units of moles of H+ ions per liter of solution is...... pH
1 x 10^0 = a pH of? pH= 0
1 x 10^-9= a pH of? pH= 9
Acids have been given different definitions that mean what? Oil- water-soluble and Sour- sour tasting.
What happens to the pH when an acid is dissolved in water? It gives a solution with a pH of less than < 7. H+ ions are given up in the water.
What does an acid give up to a base? It gives up a proton (H+) ion
What can an acid accept from a base? An unshared pair of electrons from a Base.
In a neutralization rxn what is formed and what reacts together? An acid reacting with a base to form a salt in water.
Acids give up their H+ ions in water and therefor increase what other ion with the bonding of H+ ions? Hydronium ion (H3O+) concentration is increased in the water. H+ given up by acid and binds with H2O (neutral) to form (H30+)
What is an ionic compound and give an example of one. Ionic compound is composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions for an overall neutral or no net charge. Salt is an example.
NH3(base) + HCL(acid)--> NH4Cl(salt) Is this solution neutral, acidic, or basic? Neutral, a base and an acid form an ionic compound of a salt in which is neutral.
Define alkaline Chemical compound that absorbs hydronium ions when dissolved in water. They accept protons (H+) ions.
What reduces the hydronium ion (H30)concentration in water? Base--> H30 a base accepts H+ (proton) from H30.
What is less viscous that pure water and has a bitter taste? Base
Feels soapy to the touch? Base
When HCL is poured into H2O what happens? HCl + H2O--> H+ & Cl-. When an acid is poured into water it gives up H+ to the water.
The more the pH approaches 1, indicates what kind of acid? Closer to 1 indicates a strong acid.
When NaOH is poured into H2O what happens? NaOH + H2O--> Na+ & OH-. When a base is poured into water it gives up OH (hydroxide) to the water.
The closer to 14 a bases pH is, means it is strong or weak? Strong
What happens when H+(acid) & OH-(base) are mixed together? H20 is formed. pH=7 A salt is also formed.
HCL (acid) + NaOH (base)--> HBR (acid) + KOH (Base)--> H2O (water) & NaCl (salt), H2O (water) & KBr (salt)
What is a conjugate acid and base? When an acid gives up a proton (H+) and a base accepts the proton (H+), the base that accepted the proton (H+) is now an acid and the acid that gave up its H+ is now the conjugate base of its previous acidic state before its proton (H+) was lost.
Does every acid have a conjugate base, and does every base have a conjugate acid? Yes, proton (H+) donor (acid) is now a base, and proton (H+) acceptor (base) is not an acid.
What do conjugate pairs differ by? They differ only by one proton or positively charged ion.
What is the pH of solution that contains both a strong acid and a strong base? pH= 7 (neutral)
What is the pH of a solution that contains a strong acid and a weak base? pH<7 (acidic)
When a weak acid is combined with a strong base? pH>7. (basic)
Weak acid with a weak base gives a pH of? You have to look at which one is slightly weaker and then decide.
What is the job of a buffer system? To neutralize a solution. Get the pH back to 7.
What is a buffer solution? A solution in which resists change in pH upon addition of small amounts of acid or base. Represented as salt/acid or conjugate base/acid.
Acids want to give up what? Bases want to accept what? Acids want to give up H+ ions, and a base wants to accept H+ ions.
What are some buffers and where are they present? Blood plasma, Carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate (HCO3-)
A pH between 4-10 can adjust__ while a pH above or below that__? Quickly, above or below cannot adjust as quickly.
A pH of 7.4=__, while a pH of <7.0=__, and a pH>7.8=__? 1) neutral 2) life threatening 3) morbidity
What is the key to regulating pH? Regulating the H+ ion concentration by the buffer systems.
What is ECF usually regulated by? HCO3/CO2--> lungs and the kidneys
What is ICF usually regulated by? By proteins & PO4--> Phosphates
What is the pH of tissues and the pH of Blood? Tissues are around 6.0 because they can't keep as well of a balance as the blood that usually has a pH around 7.4.
What are two really important acids? Carbonic acid (H2CO3) and Non-carbonic acid.
What is carbonic acid (H2CO3) usually formed from and what does it produce? The metabolism of carbohydrates,and fats. Usually produces 15,000 mmol of CO2/day.
What are non-carbonic acids formed from and what do they produce? Protein metabolism and produce 1.5mmol H+ ions/kg/day.
Three classifications of buffer systems? Chemical, Respiratory, Metabolic.
What type of buffer is in cells & body fluids and reacts immediately? Chemical Buffer
This buffer system uses CO2 and reacts within minutes? Respiratory Buffer
Metabolic Buffer uses what and when does it react? HCO3- and reacts within hours.
Three main systems in the body? Blood, Respiration, Kidneys
Acid-Base homeostasis centers around regulation of these? Blood, Respiration (CO2), and Kidneys (HCO3).
A good buffer system has equal concentrations of what? Hydrogen (H+) ions and Hydroxide (OH-) ions.
It is the buffer present at the highest concentrations in the body? either or HCO3/CO2
HCO3-/CO2 has a pKa value of what? 6.1 with 50/50 acid/base. Close to 7.4
What are the major components of the buffer systems that can independently regulate pH? Lungs (CO2) and Kidneys (HCO3-)
A normal meat based diet produces what? 20,000mEq of acid/day.
What is the end product of Carbohydrate and fat metabolism and how is it excreted? CO2 and it is excreted by the lungs.
Protein catabolism produces what and how is it excreted? 1 mEq/kg (50-60 mEq/day) of inorganic acids. Controlled by the kidney through formation of HCO3- and excretion.
Process of the Bicarbonate buffer system in response to what? (H+) + HCO3 <--> H2CO3 <--> CO2 + H2O. In response to ^ in H+ ions. H+ will bind w/ HCO3 (bicarb) needs carbonic anhydrase to form H2CO3 (carbonic acid). H2CO3 immediately breaks down into H2O & CO2.
The bicarbonate buffer system increases CO2 in the presence of what, and decreases CO2 in the presence of what? Increases when there are increased amounts of H+ ions and decreases when there are decreased amount of H+ ions.
Why is the respiratory system an important part of the Bicarbonate buffer system? Because it compensates for our CO2 level by changing rate and depth of respiration's to either eliminate excess CO2 or attainment of CO2.
How does the renal system react in the presence of a decrease in pH? An increase in pH? Decrease pH the kidney's will increase the secretion of H+ ions in the urine. Increase in pH they will reabsorb H+ ions back into the blood.
This buffer system may take hours or even days for compensation? Renal System
This buffer system prevents drastic changes in plasma CO2? Hemoglobin (Hgb) buffer system
What absorbs CO2 in the Hgb buffer system and how do they contribute to compensation? RBC absorb CO2 and changes it to H2CO3 (carbonic acid) in which quickly dissociates and is excreted via the lungs.
Describe what happens when the Hgb buffer system compensates by the body producing CO2? CO2 is dumped in the blood and picked up by RBC. It combines with H2O-> H2CO3 then dissociates -> H+ and HCO3. If HCO3 goes into plasma the RBC takes on Cl-. Once in the lung HCO3 goes into RBC combines w/ H+-> H2CO3-> CO2 & H2O. CO2 is excreted via lungs
What does the Respiratory buffer system use for compensation? And where does it go? Carbonic acid/bicarbonate system. CO2 + H2O--> H+ & HCO3--> CO2 & H2O. Goes from muscle to blood plasma to lungs.
Where do we see the Phosphate buffer system? ICF and Urine
What are the main elements of the phosphate buffer system? H2PO4- and HPO4
What happens when a strong acid is added and the phosphate buffer system compensates? The H+ is accepted by the phosphate base and converted to H2PO4 (weak acid). HCl + Na2HPO4-->NaH2PO4 + NaCl. This rxn decreases the reduction in pH.
What happens when a strong base is added and the phosphate buffer system compensates? NaOH + NaH2PO4--> Na2HPO4 + H2O. The strong base is now converted into a weak base causing only a slight increase in pH instead of a drastic increase with the strong base.
Carotid and aortic sinuses do what to help maintain pH? Increase BP to area where there is an increase in H+ ions in an attempt to eliminate them, and then increase RR to breath off CO2.
Receptors in the medulla oblongata help to maintain the pH in what type of fluid? CSF
The renal buffering system stops buffering when the urine pH is what? pH=4.5
How does the renal buffer compensate for a high pH if it stops when the pH of urine reaches 4.5 Buffer phosphates bonds with excess H+ ions in the kidneys, so that the pH still remains low enough for the renal buffer system to excrete H+ ions into the urine, while binding with other H+ ions to form HCO3 that is reabsorbed into the plasma.
Which is more of a bigger problem, elimination of excess acid or base? Excess acid
Where do some of the acids in our body come from? Normal metabolism, ingested acids.
There are two forms of acids what are they? Volatile=(H2CO3) and Nonvolatile= products of metabolism.
What is an example of a volatile acid? H2CO3 (carbonic acid)-weak acid. Formed from picking up CO2. Weak acid doesn't release H+ easily, and needs carbonic anhydrase for dissociation--> To make H2O and CO2
How is the volatile acid H2CO3 formed in the body and how is it eliminated? By normal metabolism of fat, carbohydrates, and some proteins. Eliminated by the lungs.
What are some examples of a non-volatile acid and how are they excreted? H2SO4, H3PO4, lactic acid/ketoacids. Excreted by the lungs.
H2SO4 and H3PO4 are formed from what inside our body? From metabolism of sulfu-containing proteins, and phosphoproteins.
Lactic acid/ketoacids are the products of? Intermediary metabolism. Ketoacid is formed from the metabolism of a large amount of fats that are broken down when carbohydrates are not available as an energy source. Lactic acid is formed in the result of Anaerobic metabolism.
What pH should be maintained if there is a good buffer system? pH= 7.4
What is pKa? Acid dissociation constant Ka, measure of the strength of acid in a solution. Larger the pKa value the smaller of extent of dissociation of H+ ions from an acid.
What does pKa measure the tendency of? The tendency of A molecule or ion to keep a proton (H+). Acids give up H+ and bases steal H+ ion.
Dissociate almost completely in a solution? Strong acids almost give up all their H+ ions.
Strong acids..... Have large acidity constants, and are close to 1. Eg.HCL pH=2=0.01
Do not fully dissociate, and have acidity constants far less than 1. Weak acids eg. soda pH=4=0.0001
Buffers that have a pKa of what are the best? 7.4 because the H+ and OH- ions are equal.
These ions move freely between ECF and ICF? H+ ions
If a H+ moves from ECF to ICF what has to happen? Think Hgb buffer system. A negatively charged ion (anion) has to move in the same direction, and a positive ion (cation) has to move in the opposite direction. Increase in Plasma H+, elicits and increase in Plasma K+, and Cl- is pulled out.
Why is it important to check K+ levels in a person with DKA? Because in DKA the H+ moves into the cells and K+ moves out of the cells.
What are the most abundant buffers in and out of cells and why? Proteins, because the contain the amino acid histidine.
What is a histidine? An amino acid in which has an imidazole ring with pKa=7.0. They are really the buffer on proteins.
Why is Hgb one of the best protein buffer systems? Because it contain histidines, (36 per molecule)
Phosphates are buffers that are active in where? Buffers in which are active in the kidney.
Are phosphates in ICF or ECF? They are present in large amounts inside cells, and small amounts in the ECF.
What is the pKa of the phosphate buffer system (HPO4+, H2PO4-)? pKa=6.8
With the bicarbonate buffer system we get rid of the acid, but we also lose what? We also lose bicarbonate.
How does our body replace the bicarbonate? It is regenerated in the bone stores of carbonate, and the kidney is able to regenerate new bicarbonate to replace which was lost.
Created by: ngawlik