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Machen 02-6 Grammar

Machen Biblical Greek Lesson 02-06 Grammar

QuestionAnswer
What are Greek accents useful for? Not only does the accent enable us to pronounce words correctly, it also often helps identifying forms.
Are the accents pronounced differently from one another? In archaic Greek different accents implied different musical pitches but by our target time period we expect a stress accent.
What is the last syllable of the word? The last syllable of a Greek word is the ultima.
What is the second last syllable of the word? The second last syllable of a Greek word is the penult.
What is the third last syllable of the word? The third last syllable of a Greek word is the antepenult.
How is a long syllable identified? Syllables containing a long vowel or a diphthong are long.
Are any diphthongs considered short? A final syllable containing αι or οι is considered short for purposes of accent.
Where may an acute accent be? The acute accent can stand only on one of the last three syllables of a word.
Where may a circumflex accent be? The circumflex can stand only on one of the last two syllables. It can never be on a short syllable.
Where may a grave accent be? The grave accent can stand only on the last syllable.
When is it impossible to put an accent on an antepenult? The antepenult cannot be accented if the ultima is long.
If the ultima is long what kind of accent can be on the penult? If the ultima is long the penult, if it is accented, must have an acute accent.
If the ultima is short what kind of accent can be on the penult? If the ultima is short the penult, if it is accented, must have a circumflex.
When is a grave accent found? An acute accent on the last syllable of a word, regardless of the length of its vowel, is changed to the grave when followed, without intervening mark of punctuation, by other words in a sentence.
What are characteristics of verbs? Greek verbs have tense, voice and mood. Some moods have person and number.
What does the present tense in the indicative mood refer to? The present indicative refers to present time.
What does the active voice indicate? The active voice represents the subject as acting instead of being acted upon.
What does the indicative mood signify? The indicative mood makes an assertion.
Is it necessary to use personal pronouns to indicate person and number in Greek? It is not necessary to use personal pronouns to indicate person and number in Greek, though Greek does have them and may use them.
What is a verb stem? The stem of a word is that part which remains constant and to which endings may be added.
How is the present stem of a verb located? The present stem is obtained by removing the final ω from the form given in the vocabulary.
What is a progressive tense? A progressive tense tends to indicate repeated or ongoing activity. Sometimes we call it linear action.
Is the present tense linear? The present tense is part of the progressive tense system but it can also serve as a simple present.
What is parsing? To parse is to identify a particular verb according to its form. Complete parsing includes tense, voice, mood, person, number, and lexical (dictionary) form.
What is the importance of parsing? If a student is able to parse a verb instantly and on sight the student will reliably recognize all the important characteristics of the verb. Parsing is never an end in itself.
What is a recessive accent? Verbs have a recessive accent. The accent will be as far from the end of the word as the accent rules permit.
What is a declension? A declension is a group of nouns or adjectives which have similar forms.
Does Greek have articles? Greek does not have an indefinite article but it does have a definite article. In Greek sometimes the article is used where it would not be appropriate in English.
What are important characteristics of Greek nouns? Greek nouns have gender, number and case.
What are the three genders of Greek nouns? Greek nouns may be masculine, feminine or neuter. In most cases gender is merely a grammatical classification.
How is the gender of a Greek noun identified? Recognize the gender of a Greek noun from the definite article. The nominative singular ending is not always reliable.
What is the masculine definite article? The masculine nominative singular definite article is ὁ.
What is the feminine definite article? The feminine nominative singular definite article is ἡ.
What is the neuter definite article? The neuter nominative singular definite article is τό.
What are the numbers of Greek nouns? Greek nouns have two numbers: singular and plural.
What word must agree with the subject in number? The subject and verb agree in number.
What are the four cases in Greek? Greek has four cases: nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative. There is a fifth case, the vocative, used occasionally and readily recognized.
How is the stem of a Greek noun identified? Remove the genitive singular ending from a Greek noun to identify the stem.
What is the nominative case used for? The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence.
What is the accusative case used for? The accusative case is used for the direct object of a verb.
What is the genitive case used for? The genitive case expresses relationships such as possession, source, and separation. We often find the word "of" useful in rendering the genitive case.
What is the dative case used for? The dative case expresses relationships such as instrumentality, location, or reception. It is the case of the indirect object of a verb. We often find the words "to" or "for" useful in rendering the dative case.
What is special about the declension of neuter nouns? In all neuter nouns of all declensions the accusative of both numbers is like the nominative.
What is normal Greek word order? The normal order of the sentence in Koine Greek is like that in English.
May Greek word order be varied? Greek word order is much more flexible than English word order. We must identify the use of words in the sentence by their endings, not their order.
Why is there a ν on the end of some words after an ending? The movable ν is added normally at the end of a sentence or where the following word begins with a vowel or a τ. It is used for greater euphony.
Is the noun accent recessive? Noun accents are persistent. They remain on the same syllable as in the nominative singular as long as general accent rules permit.
What accent appears in the genitive and dative of 2nd declension nouns accented on the ultima? In the second declension, if the ultima is accented, it has a circumflex in the genitive and dative but an acute in the nominative and accusative.
Does the α or η in the nominative singular generally indicate the feminine? All nouns of the first declension ending in α or η are feminine, and conversely all feminine nouns of the first declension end in α or η.
What are the three groups of first declension feminine nouns? Some first declension feminine nouns have an α in the singular endings. Some have an η. Some have α in the nominative and accusative and an η in the genitive and dative.
How do the plural endings differ in the different groups of first declension nouns? All groups of first declension nouns have the same plural endings.
How is the stem of a first declension noun found? Remove the genitive singular ending to identify the stem of a Greek noun.
When does a first declension feminine keep the α throughout the singular? First declension feminine nouns with an ε, ι, or ρ before the α will keep the α throughout the singular.
Where is the accent on the genitive plural of first declension nouns? Nouns of the first declension have a genitive plural with a circumflex on the ultima.
What is a proclitic? A proclitic is a word that goes so closely with the following word as to have no accent of its own.
Which forms of the definite article are proclitic? ὁ, ἡ, οἱ, and αἱ are proclitics.
How does an adjective agree with its noun? Adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in gender, number and case but not necessarily ending.
What are the two positions of adjectives? Adjectives may be in the attributive position or the predicate position.
What is an example of an attributive adjective? In the phrase "the good word" the adjective is attributive.
What is an example of a predicate adjective? In the sentence "the word is good" the adjective is predicate.
How is an attributive adjective identified in Greek? An attributive adjective has an article immediately in front of it.
How is a predicate adjective identified in Greek? A predicate adjective in Greek does not have an article immediately before the adjective.
What is a substantive adjective? A substantive adjective is an adjective which is used as though it is a noun.
Do third declension adjectives always have a circumflex on the ultima in the genitive feminine plural? Third declension adjectives follow the normal accent rules in the genitive feminine plural. There is not always a circumflex on the ultima, as in the first declension.
Created by: profmom