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Respiratory BrChp 23

Management of Patients with Chest and Lower Respiratory Tract Disorders

QuestionAnswer
Acute Lung Injury an umbrella term for hypoxemic, respiratory failure; acute respiratory distress syndrome is a severe form of acute lung injury
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) nonspecific pulmonary response to a variety of pulmonary and nonpulmonary insults to the lung; characterized by interstitial infiltrates, alveolar hemorrhage, atelectasis, decreased compliance, and refractory hypoxemia
Asbestosis diffuse lung fibrosis resulting from exposure to asbestos fibers
Central Cyanosis bluish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes due to hemoglobin carrying reduced amounts of oxygen
Consolidation lung tissue that has become more solid in nature due to collapse of alveoli or infectious process (pneumonia)
Cor Pulmonale “heart of the lungs”; enlargement of the right ventricle from hypertrophy or dilation or as a secondary response to disorders that affect the lungs
Empyema accumulation of purulent material in the pleural space
Fine-Needle Aspiration insertion of a needle through the chest wall to obtain cells of a mass or tumor; usually performed under fluoroscopy or chest computed tomography guidance
Hempoptysis the coughing up of blood from the lower respiratory tract
Hemothorax partial or complete collapse of the lung due to blood accumulating in the pleural space; may occur after surgery or trauma
Induration an abnormally hard lesion or reaction, as in a positive tuberculin skin test
Nosocomial pertaining to or originating from a hospitalization; not present at the time of hospital admission
Open Lung Biopsy biopsy of lung tissue performed through a limited thoracotomy incision
Orthopnea shortness of breath when reclining or in the supine position
Pleural Efussion abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
Plueral Friction Rub localized grating or creaking sound caused by the rubbing together of inflamed parietal and visceral pleurae
Pleural Space the area between the parietal and visceral pleurae; a potential space
Pneumothorax partial or complete collapse of the lung due to positive pressure in the pleural space
Pulmonary Edema increase in the amount of extravascular fluid in the lung
Purulent consisting of, containing, or discharging pus
Restrictive Lung Disease disease of the lung that causes a decrease in lung volumes
Tension Pneumothorax pneumothorax characterized by increasing positive pressure in the pleural space with each breath; this is an emergency situation and the positive pressure needs to be decompressed or released immediately
Thoracentesis insertion of a needle into the pleural space to remove fluid that has accumulated and decrease pressure on the lung tissue; may also be used diagnostically to identify potential causes of a pleural effusion
Transbronchial through the bronchial wall, as in a transbronchial lung biopsy
Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio the ratio between ventilation and perfusion in the lung; matching of ventilation to perfusion optimizes gas exchange
Atelectasis collapse or airless condition (closure/blockage) of the alveoli caused by hypoventilation, obstruction to the airways, or compression
Signs and Symptoms of Atelectasis increasing dyspnea, cough, and sputum production... in addition, tachycardia, tachypnea, pleural pain, and central cyanosis may be anticipated, patients characteristically have difficulty breathing in the supine position and are anxious
Created by: pgadget