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BJU Cul Geog. 2

BJU Cultural Geography 9th grade Chapter 2

cataclysm a violent upheaval or change in the earth's crust, especially a flood. Christians believe that the earth's features were changed by a cataclysm
2Peter 3:5 states this about scoffers who do not believe in the flood. 2Peter 3:5 states that mankind is "willingly" ignorant of God's intervention in history
Was the climate stable after the flood No. It probably took a long time to stabilize after the flood. eg. ice age
uniformitarianism the belief that the forces that are acting on the earth now are the same forces that have shaped the earth in the past
atmosphere the covering of air that surrounds our planet
lithosphere the solid part of the earth
hydrosphere the water on the earth's surface
name the3 layers of the earth crust, mantle and a core (liquid outer core, solid inner core)
All of the earth's surface is divided into 2 types of landmasses continents and island
Landform variation in landscape
mountain range Many mountains that appear together
plains wide areas of level land
alluvium Nutrient rich soil deposited by rivers
plateaus wide ares of flat land that rise abruptly above surrounding land some times called tablelands because the resemble a tabletop
largest ocean Pacific Ocean
Percentage of Earth's fresh water Less than 3% --- more than 2/3 of which is in polar ice caps, glaciers, or underground
tributary rivers that feed other rivers
Longest River Nile
River with largest Discharge Amazon River
River with largest Drainage Amazon drains a rain forest that is 40% of the continent of So. America
Largest system of freshwater lakes Great Lakes of North America
river system a river and all its tributaries
headwaters another term for the source of a river
longest river in U.S. Mississippi
Discharge The amount of water that flows from a river
Drainage basin The total area from which a river and its tributaries get their water
Harbor Sheltered body of deep water next to the shore
Wetlands areas of stagnant water
Bogs spongy areas of land that look dry but are covered with wet organic materials
Marshes areas of visible standing water with small vegetation that has its roots submerged in the water
coniferous forests Areas with trees, such as pines and firs that can grow in cold harsh subpolar climates
deciduous forests Areas with trees that have brad flat leaves and that require a lot of water and a growing season of at least 4 months
deserts Hot, dry, wastelands
permafrost Soil that remains frozen all year
savannas Tropical grasslands with only a few scattered trees
shrub forests Areas with a mediterranean climate that have dense bushes but are too dry to support many trees
steppes Grasslands in temperate regions where rainfall is between ten and thirty inches a year and soil is fertile but very hard
tropical rain forests Areas in the tropics that support many trees, the leaves and branches of which form a canopy over the forest floor
tundras Cold areas that support only limited vegetation because they receive only light precipitation, mainly snow, which covers the ground most of the year
lakes body of water fully enclosed by land
seas arms of the ocean that are only partially enclosed by land
plate tectonics theory theory that earth's surface in broken into pieces that crash into and pull apart from each other releasing energy
faults deep cracks in the earth's surface where two pieces of land have moved in different directions
weathering breakdown of rocks by water, wind, plant roots, temperature changes, and freezing and thawing.
erosion natural removal of small pieces of rock or soil
3 ways God distributes the earth's thermal energy seasons, winds and ocean currents
Hydrological Cycle process of evaporation, condensation and precipitation
Hydro Cycle - evaporation liquid water changes to water vapor and rises into the atmosphere
Hydro Cycle - Condensation water vapor changes to liquid or solid water in the clouds
Hydro Cycle - Precipitation the liquid or solid water grows until it becomes too heavy to supported by the air, falling to the earth as rain, sleet, hail or snow and contributes to the supply of groundwater. It flows to streams and rivers which flows to the oceans
locate and label following zones on a map Equator, Tropics, Temperate Zone, Polar Region
Created by: donnas7kids