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Micro Qtr 1

defined as the study of microorganisms and their effects on other organisms Microbiology
Membrane Bound Nucleus, Large, Outer Membrane Eukaryotic Cell
No True Nucleus but still has DNA, Small, Peptidoglycan in cell wall Prokaryotic Cell
The 5 Kingdoms Prokaryote/Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plant, Animal
The 3 Domains Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Domain with prokaryotic cells that lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls Archaea
The Taxonomical Hierarchy Domain, Kingdom, Division/Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Study of bacteria Bacteriology
Study of fungal organisms Mycology
Study of viruses Virology
Study of parasites Parasitology
Study of immunity Immunology
Describe Bacteria Single celled organism (unicellular), prokaryotic, Kingdom Prokaryote/Monera, 3 shapes, peptidoglycan cell wall, binary fission (reproduction)
Saprophytes & Parasites are... Heterotrophs
Self-Feeders Autotrophs
No bacterial cell wall, smallest free living organism, has a fried egg appearance, Mycoplasma
Involve an insect vector, Obligate Intracellular Parasites, Cause Typhus Fevers Rickettsia
Bacteria that is an Obligate Intracellular Parasite Chlamydia
Eukaryotes, most are unicellular, first-formed animals, Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Protista Protozoa (singular Protozoan)
Eukaryotes, Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Fungi Fungi (singular Fungus)
2 Types of Fungi & characteristics Yeasts: unicellular oval microorganisms Molds: multicellular organisms that form visible masses
Acellular, contains either DNA or RNA, nucleic acid core surrounded by a capsid (protein coat), obligate intracellular parasites Viruses
An infectious protein resistant to most procedures that modify nucleic acids, causes CJD & mad cow disease Prion
Study of shape and form without regard to function Morphology
Bacteria Diameter & Units .2-2.0 um
Bacteria Length & Units 2.0-8.0 um
3 Primary Shapes of Bacteria Coccus, Bacillus, Spiral
Spherical bacteria that cause diseases like scarlet fever & rheumatic fever Coccus (cocci)
Rod shaped bacteria that cause diseases like typhoid fever, shigellosis, anthrax, tetanus Bacillus (bacilli)
3 Types of Spiral Bacteria Vibrio, Spirillum, Spirochete
Comma Shaped Bacteria Vibrio (vibrios)
Helical bacteria rigid when in motion Spirilla (spirillum)
Helical bacteria flexible when in motion Spirochetes
What is the shape of bacteria determined by? Heredity
Genetically most bacteria are... Monomorphic
Bacteria that do not change shape Monomorphic
Bacteria that changes shape like corynebacterium Pleomorphic
Cocci that remain in pairs after dividing Diplococci
Spherical bacteria that remain attached in chain-like patterns after dividing Streptococci
Cocci that divide in two planes and remain in groups of four Tetrads
Spherical bacteria that divide on three planes and remain attched in cube-like groups of eight Sarcinae
Cocci that divide in multiple planes and form grape-like clusters Staphylococci
Rod-shaped bacteria that divide across their short axis and remain in pairs Diplobacilli
Bacilli that divide across their short axis and remain in chains Streptobacilli
Rod-shaped bacteria that are oval and look like cocci Coccobacilli
Do spiral shaped bacteria have arrangements? NO
A sticky, gelatinous coating that surrounds the cell wall of a bacteria Glycocalyx
A glycocalyx that is organized and firmly attached to the cell wall Capsule
An unorganized glycocalyx that is loosely attached to the cell wall Slime Layer
A bacteria with a capsule that causes pneumococcal pneumonia Streptococcus pneumoniae
How do capsules enhance virulence? By resisting phagocytosis
Having a single flagellum Monotrichous
Having flagella/flagellum at both ends Amphitrichous
Having tufts or bunches of flagella at one end Lophotrichous
Flagella covering the entire surface Peritrichous
The movement of a bacterium toward or away from a stimulus or envirnment Taxis
Light stimulus Phototaxis
Chemical stimulus Chemotaxis
A favorable stimulus Attractant
An unfavorable stimulus Repellant
Flagella produced by spirochetes Axial Filaments/Endoflagella
Causative agent of syphilis with axial filaments Treponema pallidum
Type of motion the axial filaments give spirochetes Corkscrew
Short, hair-like/bristle-like appendages that allow for attachment Pili or Fimbriae
Bacteria with pili that causes gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae
What are the purposes of a bacterial cell wall? Prevents the cell from rupturing, maintains shape, it's a point of anchorage for flagella, may help cause disease
The primary macromolecular network of a bacterial cell Peptidoglycan
Characteristics of a Gram-positive cell Many layers of peptidoglycan, wall contains teichoic acids, no outer membrane, creates an exotoxin
Characteristics of a Gram-negative cell One or few layers of peptidoglycan, has an outer membrane, no teichoic acids, outer membrane produces an endotoxin
Concept that the bacterial cell wall is chemically different than a host cell so antibiotics that target the bacterial cell wall will not harm the host cell Selective Toxicity
A digestive enzyme that can damage the bacterial cell wall Lysozyme
A Gram-positive cell will almost be completely destroyed by lysozyme, the wall-less cell is called.... A Protoplast
A Gram-negative cell wall will not be completely destroyed by lysozyme, what remains is called a..... Spheroplast
The gate-keeper of the cell; most importantly, determines what enters and exits the cell Plasma Membrane
2 Types of movement across a cell membrane Passive and Active
Substances cross the membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration with no expenditure of energy Passive Transport
The cell must use ATP to move substances from an area of low concentration to high concentration Active Transport
What are examples of molecules that can cross a cell membrane by simple diffusion? Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and water
Type of passive transport where the substance being transported combines with a plasma membrane protein called a transporter or protease Facilitated Diffusion
Simple diffusion of water Osmosis
In living systems the chief solvent is... Water
The type of solution where the solute concentration outside of the cell equals the solute concentration inside the cell Isotonic Solution
The type of solution where the solute concentration outside the cell is lower than the solute concentration inside of the cell Hypotonic Solution
The expanding or bursting of a cell Plasmoptysis, Osmotic Lysis
The type of solution where the solute concentration outside of the cell is higher than inside the cell Hypertonic Solution
The shrink or collapse of a cell Plasmolysis
Special type of active transport used by prokaryotic cells where the substance being transported gets chemically altered Group Translocation
3 Things that all prokaryotic cells contain in the cytoplasm Nuclear Area, Ribosomes, Inclusion Body
Describe the composition of the cytoplasm in a prokaryotic cell 80% water, contains proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, inorganic ions
3 other names for the nuclear area in a prokaryotic cell Nuclear Body, Nuclear Region, Nucleoid
Function as the site of protein synthesis in the prokaryotic cell Ribosomes
Function as reserve deposits, temporary storage Inclusion Bodies
Certain gram-positive cells, Clostridium & Bacillus, form specialized resting cells called... Endospores
What is the shape of spore forming bacteria? Rod Shaped
The process of spore formation is called... Sporulation, Sporogenesis
Characteristics of an endospore Thick wall, resistant to physical agents, resistant to most disinfecting agents, form when there is a lack of carbon, nitrogen, or moisture
Going from spore state to vegetative state is.... Germination
Going from vegetative state to the spore state is.... Sporulation, Sporogenesis
Self-nourishing bacteria capable of growing in the absence of organic compounds Autotrophic Bacteria
Bacteria that require complex organic food from a carbon source Heterotropic Bacteria
Most pathogenic bacteria are.... Heterotropic
3 Catagories of Heterotrophic Bacteria Strict Saprophytes, Strict Parasites, Facultative Bacteria
2 Types of Facultative Bacteria Facultative Parasites, Facultative Saprophytes
Bacteria that survive on dead or decaying matter Strict Saprophytes
Bacteria that are completely dependant on their living host for the nutrients they need to survive Strict Parasites
Bacteria adapted to be able to grow in the presence of dead or decaying matter, but prefer living organic matter Facultative Saprophytes
Bacteria adapted to survive in the presence of living organic matter but prefer dead or decaying matter Facultative Parasites
Name the 5 classifications of bacteria based on their oxygen requirements Obligate Aerobe Obligare Anaerobe Microaerophilic Organisms Facultative Organisms Aerotolerant Organisms
Microorganisms that can only live in the presence of oxygen because they need it to metabolize sugars Obligate Aerobe
Microbes that can only survive in an envirnment devoid of oxygen Obligate Anaerobes
Microorganisms that require little free oxygen (about 2-10%) Microaerophilic Microorganisms
Bacteria adapted to survive in the absence of oxygen but prefers the presence of oxygen Facultative Anaerobe
Bacteria adapted to survive in the presence of oxygen but prefer to live without oxygen Facultative Aerobe
Organisms that can grow in the absence or presence of oxygen Aerotolerant Organisms
Do pathogenic bacteria require fairly high levels of moisture to grow? Yes
How do bacteria obtain most of their nutrients? From the surrounding water they are in solution in
What temperature do pathogenic bacteria grow best at? Body temperature; 37*C (98.6 *F)
Name the 3 broad catagories of bacteria based on their temperature requirements to grow Psychrophiles Mesophiles Thermophiles
Bacteria that prefer moderate temperatures Mesophiles
What is the min & max temperatures for mesophiles? 25-40*C (77-104*F)
Bacteria that prefer cold Psychrophiles
What is the min & max temperatures for psychrophiles? 0-25*C (32-77*F)
Most pathogenic bacteria are classified as ________ Mesophiles
Bacteria that thrive best in high temperatures Thermophiles
What is the min & max temperatures for thermophiles? 40-70*C (104-158*F)
Temperature below which bacterial growth will not take place Minimum Growth Temperature
Temperature above which bacterial growth will not take place Maximum Growth Temperature
Temperature at which organisms grow best Optimum Growth Temperature
What pH range to bacteria grow best in? Between 6-8, near neutrality
In the visible light spectrum, what color is least destructive to bacteria? Red
In the visible light spectrum, what color is most destructive to bacteria? Violet
What light spectrum destroys most bacteria? Ultraviolet Light
The pressure required to prevent the net flow of water across a semi-permeable membrane Osmotic Pressure
Other than water, what is one of the most important requirements for microbial growth? Carbon
3 Key components of Macromolecules Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids
Nitrogen, sulfur, & phosphorus are also needed by bacteria for the synthesis of... Proteins, DNA & RNA, ATP (energy)
A microorganism that grows best at relatively high carbon dioxide concentrations Capnophile
A visible group of bacteria growing on a culture medium Bacterial Colony
2 Types of Bacterial Colonies Mixed-more than one species Pure-only one species
A method of asexual reproduction in bacteria in which the parent cell splits into two daughter cells, each develops into a complete identical cell Binary Fission/Simple Transverse Division
The time required for a cell to divide (and its population to double) Generation Time
What is the generation time for most bacterial cells? 1-3 hours
Created by: sbarton