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Fosfomycin inhibits binding of PEP to GlcNAc --> no production of MurNAc (analog of PEP)
D-cycloserine inhibits production of pentapeptide by blocking action of D-Ala racemase & ligase (analog of D-Ala)
Vancomycin inhibits transglycosylation (flipping out and joining of adjacant GlcNAc-MurNAc) --> binds to D-Ala-D-Ala = inc in osmotic lysis
Bacitracin inability to recycle GCL-P, therefore, unable to bind to cytoplasmic membrance to begin formation of peptidoglycan
Penicillin/Cephalosporin form stable structure with transpeptidase so cross-linking CAN'T take place
Linezolid Bind to the 23S of the 50S subunit --> instable 70S; cidal = streptococci & static = staph & enterococci
Aminoglycosides Bind to & interfer with proteins of the 30S; bactericidal; broad spectrum; nephro-/ototoxicity
Streptomycin AMINOGLYCOSIDE; 1) produce kink @ A-site = misreading and incorrect codon inserted, 2) production of faulty outer membrane proteins = leaky membrane, 3) inability of polysomal production = 70S instability = fall apart
Spectinomycin forms instable 70S complex (not misreading); bacteriostatic; GONORRHEA treatment (when beta-lactamase producing species)
Tetracyclines bind to 30S & inhibit binding of aa-tRNA @ A-site; bacteriostatic; broad spectrum; RESISTANCE: mutation in OmpF (no uptake)
Chloramphenicol binds to 50S & alters tRNA structure (no ability to add aa-tRNA to A-site); bacteriostatic; broad spectrum; RESISTANCE: acetyltransferases that acetylate the hydroxyl group
Lincomycin/Clindamycin binds to 50S & alters tRNA structure = no ability to add aa-tRNA to A-site); bacteriostatic; narrow spectrum (G+ bacteria, clind = anaerobic G- or bacteroides); RESISTANCE: methylation of 23S rRNA
Macrolides erythromycin derived (w/ lactone ring); block movement along mRNA; bacteriostatic; medium spectrum (Mycoplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia, Camplylogacter); RESISTANCE: methylation of 23s rRNA or hydrolysis of lactone ring by esterase
Ketolides (Telithromycin) binding w/in exit tunnel of 50S rRNA = no ability to fully produce nascent polypeptide; static or cidal
Streptogramins Dalfopristin (bind 50S --> prevent elongation); Quinupristin (premature release of peptide chains); Synercid (both); static (either alone) or cidal (synercid)
Sulfonamides inhibits folic acid synthesis via dihydropteroate synthetase (no dihydropteroic acid); analog of PABA; bacteriostatic; broad spectrum (NOT M. tuberculosis); CAN'T synthesize thymidine/uridine
Trimethoprim inhibits dihydrofolate reductase = NO BH4; analong of BH2; bacteriostatic; broad spectrum
PAS inhibits folic acid synthesis via dihydropteroate synthetase (no dihydropteroic acid); effective on M. tuberculosis
Rifampin/Rifabutin binds to beta-subunit of RNA pol (no unwinding); bacteriocidal; narrow spectrum (strep/staph, neisseria, mycobacteria); NO TRANSCRIPTION
Quinolones bind to DNA gyrase --> unable to unwind DNA; bactericidal; narrow (nalidoxic acid = no Pseudomonas) or broad (rest); treatment of UTIs
Metronidazole disrupts DNA/inhibits replication/DNA breaks; administered as a prodrug & metabolized by oxidoreducatses (H. pylori/E. histolytica/Giardia); Bactericidal; narrow spectrum
Polymyxins (Colistin) hydrophobic tail (insert into membrane) & hydrophilic head (binds to PE/LPS to disrupt membrane); bactericidal; narrow spectrum (pseudomonas)
Amphotericin B (& nystatin) hydrophobic face (bind to ergosterol) & hydrophilic face (forms pore for leakage of H2O/electrolytes); lead to NVD, NEPHROTOXIC, ANEMIA
Azoles inhibit ergosterol synthesis (via 14-alpha-demethylase)
Allylamines inhibit ergosterol synthesis (via squalene epoxidase)
Echinocandins block cell wall synthesis (via 1,3-beta glucan synthase)
Flucocytosine replace uracil w/ 5-flurouracil in fungal RNA; interfere w/ DNA synthesis via inhibition of thymidylate synthetase
Created by: lamsonma



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