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Unit 15

Infection Control Unit (updated)

QuestionAnswer
Cocci that occur in clusters or groups are called staphylococci
Threadlike projections that are similar to tails and allow an organism to move are called flagella
Parasitic microorganisms carried by fleas, lice, ticks, and mites are rickettsiae
Which of the following diseases is not caused by a virus? tuberculosis
In the chain of infection, a pathogen leaving the body through sexual secretions is an example of portal of exit
In the chain of infection, an instrument contaminated with blood acts as a reservoir
The process that destroys pathogenic organisms but is not always effective against spores and viruses is chemical disinfection
An OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Standard - provide PPE, enforce rules of not eating, drinking, smoking, or applying cosmetics in any area that can be contaminated, provides training on all regulations to all employees at no cost during working hours
Under standard precautions, what personal protective equipment should be worn during the delivery of a baby? gloves, gown, mask, protective eye wear
Standard precautions were developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
How many days do items usually remain sterile after being autoclaved? 30 days
The best method for sterilizing instruments that may corrode is dry heat
How much of the border around the outside of a sterile field is considered contaminated? 2 inches
The best transfer method to use when placing a sterile bowl on a sterile field is the mitten technique
An N-95, N-100, or more powerful filtering mask such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) mask must be worn for airborne precautions
Antibiotics are effective medications for pathogenic rickettsiae
The Needle stick Safety and Prevention Act requires employers to do maintain a sharps in jury log, identify and use effective and safer medical devices, and solicit input from employees who are responsible for direct patient care.
Bacteria that are round or spherical in shape are called Cocci
One-celled animal-like organisms found in decayed materials and contaminated water Protozoa
Simple plantlike organisms such as yeasts and molds Fungi
Smallest microorganisms, visible only by using an electron microscope Viruses
Any organism that requires oxygen in order to live and reproduce Aerobic
An infection present in a health care facility and transmitted by health care workers to the patient Nosocomial
An infection that occurs when the body defenses are weak Opportunistic
A process that prevents or inhibits the growth of pathogenic organisms Antisepsis
Any object that may contain pathogens Contaminated
An infection or disease that originates within the body Endogenous
Bacteria that are spiral or corkscrew in shape Spirilla
Process that destroys all microorganisms including spores and viruses Sterilization
Bacteria that are rod-shaped Bacilli
Any organism that causes infection and disease Pathogen
An organism that lives and reproduces in the absence of oxygen Anaerobic
Cilia are tiny, hairlike structures that line the respiratory tract. What do they propel out of the body? pathogens
What are part of the normal flora of the body and are beneficial in maintaining certain body processes? microorganisms
What cannot reproduce unless they are inside another living cell. Viruses
A disease originating outside the body is called exogenous
Steam under pressure, gas, and radiation can be used to... sterilize objects.
How should fingertips be pointed while washing hands? downward
Who should be considered a potential source of infection Every patient
Gloves must be worn during any procedure that is likely to cause splashing of blood or other body fluids.
Whenever possible, what should be used to avoid the need for mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. mouthpieces or resuscitation devices
When would you report a cut, injury, or needle stickā€”no matter how minor? immediately
What must be followed at all times by all health care workers? Standard precautions
To remove a contaminated mask, handle it by the ties
What can be used to remove oil from instruments before they are sterilized? Alcohol or ether
The length of time and amount of pressure required to sterilize different items... varies
Instruments that do not penetrate body tissue may be disinfected with... chemicals
Ultrasonic solutions are toxic and can cause skin irritation
Ultrasonic beakers etched with a white opaque coating must be discarded
If a sterile towel gets wet, it should not be used because it is contaminated
Beginning at the center of a wound what cleaning motion should be used? circular
What should be applied so it runs opposite from body movement or action. tape
What type of isolation depends on the causative agent of the disease and the way the organism is transmitted. transmission-based
What type of precautions are used on all patients. Standard
Who cannot wear a standard filtering mask? Men with facial hair
Masks must be changed how often every 30 minutes
A few chemicals will kill spores and viruses, but these chemicals frequently require that instruments be submerged in the chemical for how long. 10 or more hours
Specific body defenses that allow an individual to fight off a pathogen and not contract a disease- mucous membrane lining respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts; cilia; coughing and sneezing; hydrochloric acid in the stomach; tears in the eyes; fever; inflammation; immune response
Causative agent, reservoir, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host Six parts of the chain of infection.
When you arrive and immediately before leaving a facility; before and after every patient contact; anytime they become contaminated; before and after removing gloves; before and after handling any specimen; after contact with soiled or contaminated item; six times the hands must be washed.
Different body fluids that are considered infectious under standard precautions. blood, mucus, sputum, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, feces, vomitus
Sensitivity marks on bags or wraps, indicator capsules examples of autoclave indicators.
Examples of chemical solutions that can be used as disinfectants. Cidex, benzalkonium (Zephiran), 90 percent isopropyl alcohol, formaldehyde-alcohol, 2 percent phenolic germicide, 10% bleach, Lysol
bubbles created by the sound waves strike the item being cleaned and explode to drive the cleaning solution onto the article The process of cavitation in an ultrasonic unit.
Points that should be checked before opening any wrapped sterile article. contents, date, autoclave indicator, condition of package (dry, secure, sealed)
Patients whose immune systems have been depressed prior to receiving transplants, severely burned patients, patients receiving chemotherapy or radiation treatments, patients whose immune systems have failed examples of patients who may require protective or reverse isolation.
What is the purpose of autoclave indicators? ensures that articles have been sterilized
Points that should be checked on an incision site or a wound while changing a dressing. type of drainage, amount of drainage, color of drainage, degree of healing, swelling or edema
The use of microorganisms, or biologic agents, as weapons to infect humans, animals, or plants is called bioterrorism.
Factors that are essential in a comprehensive plan against bioterrorism - community-based surveillance for early detection, notification when a high-risk situation is detected, strict infection control measures, protecting food and water supplies, developing vaccines, researching treatment
Microorganisms that cause infection and disease are called pathogens
Rod shaped bacteria are called bacilli
Helminths are parasitic worms
Only a limited number of microorganisms are considered to be ideal for bioterrorism
Viruses that infect animals can mutate to infect humans, often with lethal results
Airborne precautions are used for patients known or suspected to be infected with measles, chicken pox, or tuberculosis
Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus is an example of a multidrug-resistant superbug
A hantavirus affecting primates and rodents that mutated and spread to humans is called monkeypox
The virus that causes swine flu is called H1N1
A characteristic of the "ideal" microorganism for bioterrorism is spreads through the air, easily transmitted from person to person and causes death or severe disability
A vaccination is available to prevent bioterrorism through the use of anthrax
Using sterile technique includes opening a sterile tray before donning sterile gloves, reaching in from the side, touching only sterile items when sterile gloves are in place
Prefers a warm, moist and dark enviroment microorganism
Hemorrhagic fever is an infectious disease caused by a filovirus
Viruses that are caused by a filovirus Ebola and Marburg virus
Common belief that these viruses are transmitted from animals such as bats Ebola and Marburg
A highly contagious infectious disease that is caused by a variola virus smallpox
Infectious disease caused by bacteria called Yersinia pestis plague
A paralytic illness caused by a a nerve toxin produced by bacteria called Clostridium botulinum botulism
Infectious disease caused by bacteria called francisella tularensis tularemia
Handwashing is the most important method used to practice aseptic technique
What is a perfect medium for the spread of pathogens hands
What does most waterless hand cleaning products contain to provide antisepsis and a moisturizer to prevent drying of the skin. alcohol
Linens contaminated with body fluids such as urine must be placed in infectious waste or biohazardous material bags
To remove contaminated gloves,grasp the contaminated glove in the palm of the gloved hand, using the un- gloved hand, slip the fingers under the cuff of the glove on the oposit hand pull the glove down and turn inside out
Basins and jars should be placed in an autoclave on their sides so that steam can enter and air can flow out
The usual soaking time for instruments in a chemical disinfectant solution is 20 to 30 minutes
What does an ultra sonic unit use to clean an item sound waves
Bubbles striking items being cleaned, explode causing a process which drives the cleaning solution onto the article. It is called cavitation
The permanent tank of the ultrasonic unit must contain a solution at all times
While using transfer forceps to handle sterile items point the forceps downward
When preparing a sterile field for a dressing change, which dressing is place first on the sterile field the larger dressing
To don the first sterile glove, hold the glove by the inside cuff
Protective or reverse isolation refers to methods used to protect certain patients from organisms present in the environment
Contact precautions require the use of gloves
When droplet precautions are in effect your must wear a mask
The waist ties of an isolation gown is considered contaminated
The tie bands on the mask are considered clean
The inside of the gown is considered clean
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a variant of the coronavirus family that causes the common cold
What virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that first infected birds but now infects humans. West Nile virus (WNV)
What does the abbreviation "MRSA" mean Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureas
A virus that causes the bird flu H5N1
Exists when the outbreak of disease occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a high proportion of the population. pandemic
Occurs when the communicable disease spreads rapidly from person to person and affects a large number of people at the same time. epidemic
A patient's sore throat is cause by a streptococcus. How would it be treated? antibiotic medication
A man died from an infection caused by a rickettsiae. The infection was MOST LIKELY transmitted by: the bite of a tick
Beth has a nosocomial infection. How did she get it? spending three days in the hospital
Tuberculosis is caused by a tubercle bacillus, which is a/an: bacteria
Albert has a yeast infection under his arm. It shouldld be treated with a/an: antifungal cream
An infection that develops when the body's normal defenses are not working properly is a/an: opportunistic infection
A sterile towel falls on the floor. The towel would then be considered: contaminated
What could be found on the surface of a sterile instrument? nothing
OSHA regulations require hospitals to give their employees with occupational exposure what vaccine free of charge? Hepatitis B
A patient has an infection and is on airborne precautions. If the patient must be transported to physical therapy, what should the patient wear? a mask
What would a health care worker report in a sharps injury log? sticking himself/herself with a needle.
What health care professional should wear eye protection? a dentist extracting a tooth
When should health care workers wear gowns and gloves? when there is a chance of contact with blood and body fluids
What does OSHA require health facilities to provide for all employees who come in contact with patients? PPE
A healthcare worker who observes standard precautions would dispose of infectious waste in a/an: Biohazard container
When healthcare workers follow standard precautions, they are practicing medical: asepsis
Created by: votec