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Chapter Three..


Devolution The effort to devolve onto the states the National Government's functions in areas such as welfare, health care, and job training.
Block Grants Money from the National Government for programs in certain general areas that the states can use as their discretion within broad guidelines set by congress.
Federalism A political system in which there are local (territorial, regional, provincial, state or municipal units of government.
Sovereignty Supreme or ultimate political authority: a gov that is legally and politically independent of any other gov
Unitary System One which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of the national government, so that the states and locations are independent on its will.
Confederation or Confederal Systems One in which the states are sovereign and the national government is allowed to do only which the states permit
Federal Systems One which sovereignty is shared, so that in some matters the national government is supreme and in other matters the states are supreme.
Federal Regime One in which local units of government have a specially protected existence and can make some final decisions over some governmental activities.
"Necessary and Proper" clause The Congress shall have Power - To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States.
Nullification The failure or refusal of a U.S. state to aid in enforcement of federal laws within its limits, esp. on Constitutional grounds.
Dual Federalism Through the national government was supreme in its sphere, the states were equally supreme in its sphere, the states were equally supreme in theirs and that these two spheres of action could be kept seperate.
City Municipal Corportation or Municipality that has been charactered by a state or excersise certain defined powers and provide certain specific services.
Municipal Corporation Or Municipality City
Special-act Charter A certain city: and states what the city can or cannot do.
General-act Charter Applies to a number of cities that fall within a certain classification, usually bases on city classification.
Dillion's Rule Law that authorizes municipality to exercise only those powers
home-rule character Dillions rule allows a city government to do anything that is not prohibited by the character or state law.
Ordinances City laws.
Counties The largest territorial units between a state and a city or town.
Special-district governments or authorities Hold the responsibility for some single governmental function handling sewage treatment, managing airports, or getting rid of mosquitos.
School districts Are the most special-district governments.
Police power The law regulations, not otherwise unconstitutional, that promote health, safety and morals.
Initiative a procedure by which a specified number of voters may propose a statute, constitutional amendment, or ordinance, and compel a popular vote on its adoption.
Referendum A procedure that allows voters to reject a measure adopted by the legislature.
Recall A procudure in effect in over twenty states, whereby voters can remove an elected official from office.
Grants-in-aid a subsidy furnished by a central government to a local one to help finance a public project, as the construction of a highway or school.
Categorical grants Grants supplied on the basis of category.
Revenue sharing The system of disbursing part of federal tax revenues to state and local governments for their use.
Conditions of aid Guidelines tellin a state what they must do to be granted money.
Mandates A command or authorization to act in a particular way on a public issue given by the electorate to its representative.
Second-order devotion A flow of power and responsibility from the states to local governments.
Third-order devotion The increased role of nonprofit organizations and private groups in policy implementation.
Created by: PrettyCee.



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