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Nutrition Ch. 8 & 9

Fitness & Physical Activity

Benefits of Fitness Sleep is more restful, Allows people to eat more, Better bone density, Improve cardiovascular and immune system, and Reduce anxiety, cancer, and diabetes
Four diseases closely linked to a lack of physical activity High BP, Heart disease, Cancer and Stroke
Sedentary Physically inactive
Three components of fitness Flexibility, Strength, and Endurance
Progressive Overload Principle Training system that gradually increases the demand on the body
Hypertrophy Increase in cell size
Atrophy Decrease in cell size
Slow Twitch Muscle Fibers Contain a lot of myoglobin, mitochondria, and aerobic enzymes, contracts for long period- endurance
Fast Twitch Muscle Fibers Contain large cells w/ little myoglobin, but full of glycogen, very powerful but tires quickly
ATP (or Adenosine Triphosphate) Nucleic acid that release energy when its last phosphate is broken off
PC (or Phosphocreatine) Gives a phosphate to used ATP to restore it, short lasting, can't store too much
Glycogen Use During Exercise Glycogen is stored in muscles and broken into glucose, enough for 2hrs high carbs ups glycogen formation
Oxygen Debt Deficiency of O2 that occurs in muscle when cardiovascular can't keep up, lactic acid produced
Fat Use During Low Intensity Activity Fatty acids in blood used to make ATP, then Epine is released causing adipose cells to release fatty acids
Fat Use During High Intensity Activity Decreases fat use because fats needs more oxygen to break down
Protein Use During Physical Activity Protein synthesis is suppressed during exercise, protein provide 10% of fuel for activity
What are the vitamin and mineral RDAs for active for active people? Same for inactive people
Hyperthermia Increase body temp
Heat Stroke Body temp of 105F+, Causes nausea, dry skin, irritability, poor coordination, confusion, and seizures
Hypothermia Abnormally low body temp
Disadvantages of Sports Drinks Do not prevent salt depletion, glucose is of no value to the moderate exerciser
Advantages of Sports Drinks Replaces salt after exercise, physiological and taste advantages
Exercise induced Fe deficiency Occurs because iron leaves in sweat, RBCs are destroyed with impact, and Fe is poorly absorbed during exercise
Problems of Female Athletes Amenorrhea, low estrogen levels, infertility and bone loss, often acquired eating disorders
Carbohydrate Loading Exhausted exercise w/ restricted carbs diet followed by less exercise w/high carbs diet
Purpose of Carbohydrate Loading Force glycogen into muscle
Side effects of Carbohydrate Loading Arrythmias, Ketosis, Nausea, Dizziness, and Fatigue
Created by: Futuredoctor09