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Nutrition Ch.13

Trace Minerals

QuestionAnswer
Osteoporosis Loss of bone
Type 1 of Osteoporosis Loss of spongy bone, usually produce breaks in wrist and spine, mostly in elderly
Type 2 of Osteoporosis Loss of both spongy and compact bone, usually cause compressed vertebrae, lead to humped back, breaks in hip, mostly in women because of menopause
Factors Affecting Osteoporosis Age, Sex, Race, Activity, Smoking, Alcohol, and Nutrition
Ferrous Iron +2 Charge
Ferric Iron +3 Charge
Fe (or Iron) Aids electron transport protein, In Hemoglobin and Myoglobin, Required to make amino acids, hormones, and neurotransmitters, can be stored in intestinal cells by protein, Mucosal Ferritin
Deficiency of Fe Cause anemia, restlessness, fatigue, headache, feeling cold, and pica
Toxicity of Fe Occurs at 6 times the RDA, Causes weakness, hair loss, joint pain, enlarged liver and impotence
Sources of Fe Meat and green vegetables
What improves the absorption of Fe? Vitamin C, Organic acid, and Sugar
What inhibits the absorption of Fe? Fiber, Calcium, Phosphate, EDTA and Tannic acid (brownness in tea)
Hemochromatosis Genetic defects in which the intestine excessively absorbs iron
Zn (or Zinc) Required by 100+ enzymes, participate in Enteropancreatic circulation, can be bound and stored by metallothionein, transported thru blood by albumin
Deficiency of Zn Causes slow growth, decreased pancreatic, thyroid, & immune function, and Vit A metabolism
Toxicity of Zn Occurs at 50mg, Causes atherosclerosis and degeneration of heart muscles
Sources of Zn Meat, Eggs, and Whole Grain
I (or Iodine) Required in thyroid hormones
Deficiency of Iodine Causes goiter, fatigue and weight loss
Toxicity of Iodine Occurs at 1100ug, Causes goiter
Sources of Iodine Seafood, Iodized Salt, Bread, and Dairy products
Cu (or Copper) Required by enzymes that deals with oxygen radicals
Deficiency of Cu Causes anemia, slow growth and metabolism
Toxicity of Cu Occurs at 10mg, Causes vomiting, diarrhea, and liver damage
Sources of Cu Legumes, Grains, Nuts, and Seafood
Mn (or Manganese) Required by enzymes in metabolism (e.g. Krebs Cycle)
Deficiency of Mn Causes slow growth
Toxicity of Mn Occurs at 11mg, Causes brain disorders
Sources of Mn Nuts, Grains, and Leafy vegetables
F (or Fluorine) Strengthen bones and teeth
Deficiency of F Causes tooth decay
Toxicity of F Occurs at 10mg, Causes itching, nausea, diarrhea, chest pain, and tooth discoloration
Sources of F Water and Seafood
Cr (or Chromium) Required for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and works with insulin
Deficiency of Cr Causes diabetes-like symptoms
Toxicity of Cr Causes skin and kidney problems, seems to cause cancer, however take years to cause symptoms
Sources of Cr Meat, Whole Grain, Nuts and Cheese
Se (or Selenium) Help activate thyroid hormones once they are made and help prevent the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids
Deficiency of Se Cause heart disease
Toxicity of Se Occurs at 400ug, Causes vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, skin and nervous system damage
Source of Se Meat and Grains
Mo (or Molybdenum) Deficiency is unknown
Toxicity of Mo Occurs at 2mg, Causes reproduction problem, kidney damage and gout-like symptoms
Sources of Mo Grains, Milk, Liver and Legumes
Toxicity of Pb (or Lead) Causes poor coordination, hearing, concentration and memory, learning disability, slow growth, behavior problems, anemia, high BP and seizures
Bone Meal Grounded up bones, calcium is poorly absorbed, sometimes contain lead
Kelp & Nori Seaweed, high in iodine, also have arsenic and carcinogens in it
Super Blue Green Algae Freeze dried pond scum
Created by: Futuredoctor09