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P & P Chapter 34

Potter and perry chapter 34 Infection Control

Communicable infectious disease that can be transmitted DIRECTLY from one person to another
infectious type of infectious disease that may not pose a risk for infection. Pnemonia and viral meningitis are examples.
dose sufficient numbers of organisms
virulence ability to survive outside host or body
host resistance suceptability of host
reservoir where pathogen can survive but may or may not mulitply
pathogen infectious agent
colonization organism that multiplies but does not cause infection
bactericidal temperature or chemical that destroys bacteria
bacteriostasis prevention of growth/reproduction of bacteria by cold temperatures
carrier person who shows no symptoms of illness but have the pathogens that can be transferred to others
contact direct or indirect mode of transmission
direct contact person to person (oral or fecal);
Physical contct between source and susceptible host (touching client feces, then your mouth)
direct contact Hepatitis A, Shigella, Staphlococcus mode of transmission
indirect contact personal contact of susceptible host with contaminated inanimate object (Sharps, dressings, environment)
indirect contact Mode of transmission for: Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatits C, HIV, Staphlococcus, RSV, MRSA, pseudomonas
Droplet Large particles (bigger than 5mcg), travel up to 3 feet (coughing, sneezing, talking). Mask required.
Droplet Mode of transmission: influenza, rubella, bacteria meningitis, pertussis, mumps, scarlet fever, plague, PNEMONIA, mycoplasmal pnemonia
Airborne Droplet nuclei smaller than 5 mcg or residue or evaporated droplets suspended in air or carried on dust particles (coughing, sneezing). Requires HEPA filter and private room.
Airborne Mode of transmission: mycobacterium tb, tuberculosis, varicella zoster (chicken pox), measles,
standard precautions Apply to all blood, bodily fluids (except sweat) intact skin and mucous membranes
exogenous infection Microorganisms that are external to the patient—do not exist as normal flora
ID: postoperative infection
endogenous infection Patients own flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results.
IE: Enterococci, yeast, streptococci, c diff from being on several antibiotics
Iatrogenic infection result from diagnostic or therapeautic procedure.
IE: catheter insertion, GI endoscopy
HAI result from delivery of health care serices in health care facility. In acute care setting called Nosocomial.
Urinary most common type of HAI (32%)
Surgical Site second most common HAI (22%)
Primary defenses Skin, Ciliary action, Urinary flow, Peristalsis, pH
Secondary defenses WBC, Hgb, Inflammatory response
MDRO's MRSA, VRE, Multi drug resistant tuberculosis;
Transmitted by same routes as antimicrobial susceptible agents
no are alcohol based handrubs effective with c.Diff or spores?
5,000 10,000
Neutrophils 55
Lymphocytes 20
Monocytes 5
Eosinophils 1
Basophil 0.5
Asepsis absence of pathogenic microorganisms
medical asepsis clean technique
surgical asepsis sterile technique
disinfection elimination of many or all microorganisms
sterilization complete elimination or destruction of microorganisms and spores
direct contact involves a direct surface
direct contact Healthcare provider develops herpetic whitlow on a finger after contact with HSV when providing oral care to a patient without using gloves
direct contact Mites from a scabies
direct contact Blood or other blood
direct contact Microorganisms transferred from one infected person to another person without a contaminated intermediate object or person
indirect contact Includes the transfer of an infectious agent through a contaminated intermediate object or person. Contaminated hands of healthcare personnel are important contributors to indirect contact transmission
indirect contact Hands may transmit pathogens after touching an infected or colonized body sire, or inanimate object if hand hygiene not performed
indirect contact transfer of infectious agent through Patient
indirect contact transfer of infectious agent by sharing toys
indirect contact transfer of infectious agent by instruments inadequately cleaned between patients
droplet precautions Precautions where mask or repirator is required. Private room or cohorting patients required.
droplets generated from the source person primarily during coughing, sneezing, talking and during the performance of certain procedures such as suctioning and bronchoscopy.
NO Do droplets remain suspended in the air, special air handling and ventilation?
Airborned precautions Private room required, negative air pressure airflow, special mask or respiratory device required.
Airborne Microorganisms can be dispersed widely by air currents and may become inhaled by a susceptible host within the same room
Airborne Examples include mycobacterium tuberculosis, rubeola and varicella viruses
Wash hands First procedure when entering isolation room
Wash handds, Gown, Gloves, Mask Entering isolation room order of procedures
Remove Gloves, Remove Gown, Wash Hands, Remove Mask, Wash Hands, Exit Order or removing PPE when exiting isolation room
Created by: shoopergirl