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Principles of Gerontology

What makes life HHARD for seniors? (Chronic health conditions that often lead to disability) Hypertension, Heart disease, Arthritis, Respiratory disorders, Diabetes
What level of prevention is health promotion like promoting healthy eating and exercise? Primary prevention
What level of prevention is early diagnosis and treatment? Secondary prevention
What level of prevention is restoration and rehabilitation? Tertiary prevention
Referral for examination and testing is what level of prevention? Secondary
What level of prevention is teaching a client to use a walker? Tertiary prevention
What test does Medicare pay for yearly? FOBT, Mammograms, Pap smears, pelvic exam, Prostate-Specific Antigen, Digital Rectal Exam, Glaucoma screening for at risk,
Top 5 chronic diseases that cause death in ages 65 and up Heart disease, Cancer, Stroke, COPD, Diabetes
What scale is used to show progress toward independence related to ADLs KATZ
What changes occur in the heart with age? heart muscles thicken, max rate and ability to extract oxygen from blood decrease
Changes to arteries with aging Arteries tend to stiffen. Heart has to work harder to move blood through inelastic arteries
How much does breathing capacity decline between the ages of 40 and 70? 40%
What changes take place in the brain with normal aging? loss of neurons and axons, but studies show that the older brain can be stimulated to create new neurons – not fully understood yet
What happens to kidney function with normal aging? less efficient at removing wastes
What happens to the bladder as we age? Less capacity
What is a greater risk to apples than pears? heart disease – weight around the middle is a risk factor
What happens to fat distribution with aging? less under the skin more around internal organs
What happens to muscles (in absence of exercise)? mass declines 22% in women and 23% in men
What happens to bones as we age? loss outpaces replacement in women at about age 35 – loss accelerated at menopause
What can be done to prevent bone loss short of Rx meds? Weight-bearing exercise and high calcium intake
What happens to sight with aging? Around 40 loss of up close vision – After 50 increased sensitivity to glare, difficulty in low light and detecting moving objects, At 70 declining ability to distinguish fine detail
What happens to the sense of hearing with aging? harder to hear high frequencies and to hear when there is lots of background noise
What happens to personality as a person ages? not much change except that pain, health problems or illness may lead to depression or isolation
What truth debunks the myth that being old means being sick? Only 5% of older folks need long term care facilities. Most older folks have chronic illnesses but function well.
What truth debunks the myth that being old means being set in your ways? Older folks can learn new things and having mentally challenging activities has been shown to decrease the development of Alzheimer’s.
What truth debunks the myth that health promotion is wasted on old people? Never too late to adopt a healthy lifestyle (Exercise, Diet). Even though damage may not be reversed, health benefits will still be derived. Example: people who stop smoking will enjoy better health outcomes than those who do not.
What truth debunks the myth that the elderly do not pull their own weight? The elderly contribute in many ways: to the arts, volunteer, grandchildren, workforce
What truth debunks the myth that it is too late to change bad habits? Risk of heart disease decrease as soon as a person quits smoking. Exercise strengthens muscles, improves strength and physical fitness at any age.
What truth debunks the myth that older people are not interested in sex? Some people may have decreased interest while other people continue to have interest in intimacy throughout life.
What kind of things would be considered primary prevention? Education, injury prevention, nutrition, exercise, limit dangers – smoking, alcohol, carcinogens
What kind of things would be considered secondary prevention? Screening to include function, cognition, mood, mobility, pain, skin, quality of life, nutrition, neglect, abuse; referral for examination and testing; disease cure and aggressive treatment to limit damage
What kinds of things are considered tertiary Prevention? Multidisciplinary Rehab (physical, occupational, speech, and recreational); rehab facilities or in home; services and aides to promote independence (walkers, canes, home health aide, visiting nurse)
What are the two types of biological aging theories? Programmed and Error
What are three Programmed Theories? Programmed Longevity, Endocrine Theory, Immunological Theory
What kind of aging theories hypothesizes that the genetic code contains instructions for cellular reproduction and death? Program Theories
Aging is a result of switching on and off of certain genes Programmed Longevity
Hormones run the biological clock. Hormone replacement will keep the clock going longer Endocrine Theory
Aging and death are due to the decline of immune function leading to increased vulnerability to disease, aging, and death. Immunological Theory
Toxic by-products cause damage to normal cell functions and repair Error Theories
Cells and organs have vital parts that wear out with use Wear and Tear Theory
Accumulation of cross-linked proteins leads to cataracts, wrinkling, and aging. Cross- Link Theory
Oxygen radicals cause cumulative damage. Antioxidants slow damaging effects. Free Radical Theory
Proponents of this theory feel that genetic manipulation and alteration may slow the aging process. Somatic DNA Theory – Genetic mutations are the cause of aging
Particular genes, activated by certain enzymes, are responsible for aging. Emerging Biologic Theories
Name two Psychological Aging Theories. Jung’s theory of individualism and Erickson’s Developmental Theory
A person tries to find the answers to life’s riddles and the essence of “true self” by shifting from extroversion to introversion Jung’s Theory of Individualism
Acceptance of eventual death with either a sense of satisfaction or dissatisfaction based on the person’s interpretation of the integrity of their life experience Erikson’s Developmental Theory of Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Aging theories that tend to deal with roles and relationships Sociological Aging Theories
Name 3 Sociological Aging Theories. Disengagement Theory, Activity Theory, Continuity Theory
What theory states that there is a mutual reciprocal withdrawal of the individual from society? Disengagement Theory
Aging is not considered a time of major life readjustment, but perhaps just a little bit of slowing down Continuity Theory
Aging adult should stay engaged and active if they are to age successfully Activity Theory
What two ethnic groups have increasing rates of diabetes, probably related to the increase rates of obesity in these populations? African Americans and Hispanics
What disorder is common to 60% of the African American population? high blood pressure
What are the two basic goals of Healthy People 2010? increase quality and years of life; eliminate health disparities
How often should our older patients have an FOBT? 1/year
How often should our older patients have sigmoidoscopy? once q 4 years
How often should our older patients have a colonoscopy? every 10 years or 2 years if at risk
How often should our older patients have lipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels tested? every 5 years
How often should our older patients have a barium enema exam? every 4 years or every 2 for at risk
How often should our older patients have mammograms? yearly
How often should our older patients have pap smears and pelvic exams? yearly
How often should our older patients have the prostate-specific antigen test? yearly
How often should our older patients have digital rectal exam? yearly
How often should our older patients have bone mass screening? every 2 years for those at risk
How often should our older patients have Fasting Blood Glucose screening? Every 6 months for those at risk
How often should our older patients have Diabetes monitoring? as needed for those with diabetes
How often should our older patients have flu, pneumonia, and hepatitis b vaccinations? yearly unless physician says at risk
How often should our older patients have glaucoma screening? yearly
How often should our older patients have smoking cessation counseling? eight face to face visits during 12 months for those with smoking-related illness or taking medication that may be affected by smoking