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MICROBIOLOGY NAMES

MICROBIOLOGY

QuestionAnswer
MICROBIOLOGY THE STUDY OF LIVING ORGANISMS----NAME THEM *BACTERIA PROTISTA FUNGI *VIRUSES
1400 - 1600’S IDEA THAT DISEASE WAS CAUSED BY INVISIBLE LIVING CREATURES. WHAT A CONCEPT! OF COURSE WE TAKE THIS FOR GRANTED IN 2002 BUT WAY BACK WHEN IT WAS A NOVEL CONCEPT. DIFFICULT TO PROVE. NEEDED TO PROVE THE EXISTENCE OF MICROORGANISMS.
- ROBERT HOOKE----DATE AND WHAT HE DID 1665 : DESCRIBED FIRST CELLS USING CRUDE MICROSCOPE. CREDITED WITH THE “CELL THEORY”, WHICH ESSENTIALLY STATES THAT CELLS ARE THE FUNDAMENTAL BASIS FOR LIFE.
ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK 1674 : FIRST TO OBSERVE MICROBES HE TERMED “ANIMALCULES”, IN RAIN WATER AND FROM TOOTH SCRAPINGS USING MAGNIFYING LENSES AND EVENTUALLY A SINGLE-LENS MICROSCOPE
ORIGINS OF LIFE: CONTROVERSY PRESENCE OF MICROBES GENERATED CONTROVERSY OVER THE ORIGINS OF LIFE. PEOPLE HAD PREVIOUSLY ONLY HAD TO DEAL WITH PLANTS AND ANIMALS WHOSE EXISTENCE WAS EASIER TO RECONCILE. WHERE DID THESE TINY CREATURES COME FROM???
SPONTANEOUS GENERATION: THE PREVAILING VIEW AT THE TIME WAS SPONTANEOUS GENERATION, THE IDEA THAT LIFE COULD ARISE FROM NONLIVING MATTER. HOWEVER, THIS CONCEPT WAS CONTROVERSIAL, PRIMARILY WITHIN THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY.
FRANCISCO REDI: 1668 WAS AN OPPONENT OF THE SPONTANEOUS GENERATION THEORY AND DEVISED AN EXPERIMENT TO PROVE HIS CASE. HE, AMONG OTHERS, BELIEVED THAT LIFE COULD ONLY ARISE FROM OTHER LIFE, “LIFE BEGETS LIFE”. HIS EXPERIMENT
FRANCISCO REDI: HIS EXPERIMENT THREE JARS CONTAINING MEAT WERE LEFT OPEN: MAGGOTS APPEARED THREE SEALED JARS CONTAINING MEAT: NO MAGGOTS
SPONTANEOUS GENERATION RESPONCE TO REDI SPONTANEOUS GENERATION PEOPLE INVALIDATED THE EXPERIMENT POINTING TO THE FACT THAT BY SEALING THE SECOND JAR, AIR COULD NOT ENTER. REDI SAID FINE AND SET UP A THIRD JAR WITH ONLY A PIECE OF GAUZE ON TOP THREE JARS WITH MEAT AND A PIECE OF GAUZE ON TOP
JOHN NEEDHAM 1765 HE WAS A PROPONENT OF SPONTANEOUS GENERATION AND ATTEMPTED TO PROVE THIS THEORY. HE HEATED NUTRIENT BROTH IN OPEN FLASKS AND ALLOWED IT TO COOL BEFORE POURING THE BROTH INTO SEALED BEAKERS. SEVERAL DAYS LATER, MICROBES WERE PRESENT IN THE BROTH
LAZZARO SPALLANZANI 1765 HE WAS AN OPPONENT OF SPONTANEOUS GENERATION. HE REVISED NEEDHAM’S EXPERIMENT SLIGHTLY BY SIMPLY SEALING THE FLASK BEFORE HEATING AND HE DID NOT POUR THE BROTH INTO A BEAKER SEALED OR OTHERWISE. NO MICROBES WERE PRESENT IN THE BROTH.
GOLDEN AGE OF MICROBIOLOGY 1857-1914 THIS PERIOD WAS MARKED BY RAPID ADVANCES IN THE FIELD OF MICROBIOLOGY AS THE QUALITY OF MICROSCOPES AND MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES IMPROVED. HOWEVER, THE QUESTION AS TO THE ORIGIN OF LIFE STILL REMAINED UNSETTLED.
RUDOLF VIRCHOW: 1857 COINED THE TERM BIOGENESIS, WHICH STATES THAT “LIFE MAY ONLY ARISE FROM PREEXISTING LIVING CELLS”. NOW THE “OPPONENTS” OF SPONTANEOUS GENERATION HAD A REAL NAME TO GO BY.
LOUIS PASTEUR 1861 HE DECIDED TO SETTLE THE ISSUE ONCE AND FOR ALL AND DEVISED WHAT CAME TO BE KNOWN AS THE “GOOSENECK FLASK
1857 - LOUIS PASTEUR AT THIS POINT, PASTEUR WAS CREATING QUITE A NAME FOR HIMSELF AND WAS CALLED IN TO “SAVE” THE FRENCH WINE INDUSTRY WHICH WAS A SIGNIFICANT COMPONENT OF THE FRENCH ECONOMY
PASTEUR DEMONSTRATED DIFFERNET TYPES OF MICROORGANISMS. SOME OF THEM ARE FUNGI (NOT BACTERIA), SPECIFICALLY YEAST. THE YEAST HAVE THE ABILITY TO CONVERT SUGAR TO ALCOHOL ANAEROBICALLY THROUGH A PROCESS TERMED FERMENTATION.
HOWEVER, THE FRENCH WINE INDUSTRY WAS SUFFERING THROUGH AN INCONSISTENT YIELD OF WINE AND BEER DUE TO SPOILAGE PASTEUR EXPLAINED THAT OTHER MICROBES KNOWN AS BACTERIA CONVERT ALCOHOL TO ACETIC ACID (VINEGAR) AEROBICALLY. THIS TYPE OF FERMENTATION WAS RUINING THEIR BEER AND WINE.
PASTEUR SOLVED THE PROBLEM DEVELOPING A SELECTIVE HEATING PROCESS WHICH DESTROYED THE BACTERIA WHILE ALLOWING THE YEAST TO DO THEIR THING. THIS PROCESS WAS TERMED PASTEURIZATION, WHICH REQUIRED THE HEATING OF BEER AND WINE (TO KILL THE BACTERIA) AT 62.80 C x 30 MINUTES.
GERM THEORY 1867 THE (CRAZY)IDEA THAT MICROBES CAUSED DISEASE. MANY SCIENTISTS AND PHYSICIANS BELIEVED THIS BUT THEY NEEDED PROOF.
BASSI 1835 FUNGI CAUSED SILKWORM DISEASE
1865 – PASTEUR PROTOZOAN CAUSED SILKWORM DISEASE
LISTER 1867 A MAVERICK PHYSICIAN WHO GREW TIRED OF LOSING HALF HIS PATIENT’S TO INFECTIONS TRANSMITTED THROUGH SURGERY (INCLUDING CHILDBIRTH). HE POUNDED THE TABLE FOR ASEPTIC SURGERY
LISTER ASEPTIC SURGERY HE STARTED SOAKING GAUZE PADS IN CARBOLIC ACID (PHENOL) AND NOTICED A DRAMATIC DECLINE IN THE INFECTION RATE. LISTER IS CREDITED AS THE FIRST TO UTILIZE A CLINICAL ANTISEPTIC
ROBERT KOCH SCIENCE STILL NEEDED MORE EVIDENCE TO LINK MICROBES AND DISEASE. ROBERT KOCH MADE IT HIS MISSION TO LINK A SPECIFIC MICROBE WITH A SPECIFIC DISEASE
ROBERT KOCH EVIDENCE SICK ANIMALS TAKES SAMPLES. BLOOD SAMPLES FROM THE SICK ANIMALS AND SEPARTED THE BACTERIA INTO PURE CULTURES. HE INTRODUCED THE PURE CULTURES INTO HEALTHY ANIMALS UNTIL HE WAS ABLE TO PRODUCE THE DISEASE
ROBERT KOCH LINKED KOCH WAS THE FIRST TO LINK A SPECIFIC BACTERIA TO A SPECIFIC DISEASE NOW KNOWN AS ANTHRAX, WHICH IS CAUSED BY Bacillus anthracis.
KOCH’S POSTULATES: 1 2 1. MICROORGANISM MUST ALWAYS BE FOUND IN ASSOCIATION WITH A GIVEN DISEASE 2. MICROORGANISM MUST BE ISOLATED FROM DISEASED HOST AND GROWN IN PURE CULTURE
KOCH’S POSTULATES: 3 4 3. MICROORGANISM FROM DISEASED HOST MUST CAUSE THE DISEASE WHEN INOCULATED INTO A HEALTHY, SUCCEPTIBLE ANIMAL 4. MICROORGANISM MUST BE ISOLATED FROM THE INOCULATED ANIMAL AND GROWN IN A PURE CULTURE.
JENNER 1798 MAJOR SMALLPOX EPIDEMIC IN EUROPE. DR. JENNER WAS AT HIS WITS END TRYING TO DEAL WITH THE EPIDEMIC. ONE DAY HE ENCOUNTERED A MILKMAID WHO WAS INFECTED WITH COWPOX (A MILDER FORM OF SMALLPOX SEEN IN COWS) BUT DID NOT GET SMALLPOX
JENNER THE FATHER OF “FATHER” OF VACCCINES JENNER TOOK SCAPINGS FROM COWPOX BLISTER AND SCRATCHED ARM OF HEALTHY VOLUNTEER WITH THE BLISTER. THE VOLUNTEER CONTRACTED A MILD ILLNESS WITH NO REOCCURRENCE ALTHOUGH THE MECHANISM REMAINED UNKNOWN, THE PROCESS OF VACCINATION
OTHERS, INCLUDING THE “LADY MONTAGUE” OF TURKEY WERE DOING THE SAME THING, BUT FOR WHATEVER REASON, JENNER IS CREDITED AS THE “FATHER” OF VACCCINES, (VACCA = COW) (blank)
1880 – PASTEUR VACCINES WERE BEING EMPLOYED WITH GREAT SUCCESS BUT HOW VACCINES ACTUALLY WORKED AS WELLL AS THE PROCESS OF IMMUNITY REMAINED A MYSTERY PASTEUR REASONED THAT THE ORIGINAL (GERIATRIC) BACTERIA HAD BECOME ATTENUATED, OR HAD LOST THEIR ABILITY TO PRODUCE DISEASE BUT STIMULATED AN IMMUNE RESPONSE THUS PROTECTING THE ORIGINAL GROUP OF CHICKENS
PAUL EHRLICH 1910 PROPOSED THE IDEA OF A “MAGIC BULLETT”, A SUBSTANCE WHICH WHEN GIVEN TO ILL PATIENTS WOULD SPEED THROUGH THEIR BODIES AND KILL ALL THAT AILED THEM. HE EXPERIMENTED WITH A DERIVATIVE OF ARSENIC CALLED SALVARSAN WHICH HE USED TO TREAT SYPHILIS WITH V
LATE 1930’S: SULFA DRUGS WERE DEVELOPED AND EMPLOYED SUCCESSFULLY PRIMARILY AGAINST URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.
ALEXANDER FLEMING: 1928 PENICILLIN THE GRANDFATHER OF ANTIBIOTICS ACCIDENTALLY STUMBLED UPON A MOLD CLASSIFIED AS Penicillium notatum IN HIS LAB. HE WAS ATTEMPTING TO GROW A CULTURE OF Staph AND NOTICED IT WAS “CONTAMINATED’ WITH SOME WHITE, FUZZY STUFF. HE WAS ABOUT TO
ALEXANDER FLEMING HE WAS ABOUT TO DISPOSE OF THE CULTURE WHEN HE ALSO NOTICED THAT THE BACTERIA WERE ONLY GROWING AWAY FROM THE FUZZY STUFF, WHICH APPEARED TO BE INHIBITING BACTERIAL GROWTH. IT TURNS OUT THE FUNGUS SECRETES A CHEMICAL WHICH INHIBITS THE GROWTH OF CERTAIN
The three common features are the cell membrane, the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
The Cell Membrane The cells of all living organisms are surrounded by a cell membrane. The cell membrane is a thin layer of lipid and protein that separates the cells contents from its environment
The cell membrane functions like a fence with gates, controlling what enters and leaves the cell
Membranes are made up of phospholipids.
A phospholipid is a lipid made from glycerol, two fatty acids and a phosphate group. The two ends of the phospholipid have different properties in water. The phosphate head is hydrophilic “water loving” and the phosphate tail is hydrophobic “water-fearing”.
The Cytoplasm is located The material between the nucleus and the membrane is the cytoplasm.
The Cytoplasm is is a semi fluid substance made primarily of water and organic compounds. Various structures called organelles or “little organs,” are suspended in the cytoplasm.
The Nucleus The nucleus is called the control center; it contains most of the cells genetic material. A double membrane, called the nuclear envelope, surrounds it. The outer membrane of a cell is a lot like the nuclear envelope.
Most of the cells genetic material is kept in distinct structures called chromosomes.
chromosomes nucleic acid in the chromosome carries the genetic information.
Inside the nucleus is the nucleolus. Organelles called ribosomes are formed in the nucleolus. Ribosomes help make proteins
Two Kinds of Cells prokaryotes eukaryotes
prokaryotes Living things are classified based on the presence or absence of a nucleus in their cells. Organisms that have no definite nucleus in their cells are called prokaryotes
eukaryotes Organisms that have a nucleus surrounded by a nuclear membrane are called eukaryotes
Bacteria and their relatives are prokaryotes
all other organisms, including plants and animals are eukaryotes. Prokaryotes are smaller than eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are about 1/10 the width and 1/1000 the volume of eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotes lack a nuclear membrane, and organelles surrounded by membranes. Prokaryotes are considered the forerunners to eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotes can perform all of the activities of life like reproduction and response to the environment
Cells function like little factories constructing new molecules from raw materials. At any moment, cells may be taking in nutrients; making new molecules, sorting, secreting, and storing chemicals. Organelles are the cell structures that perform these specific functions.
In many ways organelles are like machines in a factory, each with a specific role.
Mitochondria- Mitochondria change the stored energy in food compounds into a form useful for the cell—The energy storing molecules adenosine triphosphate. (ATP)
Lysosomes- Contain digestive enzymes that help break down large molecules of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Lysosomes also digest old organelles that are no longer useful to the cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum- endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transports substances within the cell. There is rough and smooth ER. Rough ER has ribosomes and is the site of protein synthesis. Smooth ER makes lipids, processes carbohydrates and modifies chemicals that are toxic to cells
Ribosomes- These organelles are small particles composed chiefly of ribosomal-RNA and are the sites of protein synthesis. Groups of ribosomes function like an assemble line helping make proteins from amino acids
Golgi Apparatus- Is a series of flat membrane-bound sacs where molecules are sorted often modified, packaged and distributed to their destination
Cilia These are hair like projections that usually occur in large numbers on the surface of certain cells. Ciliates show coordinated beating movements, which are the major means of locomotion and ingestion, in unicellular organisms
Flagella Are long, Tail-like projections. Organisms only have one flagellum. In eukaryotes the flagella has a whip like motion. In prokaryotes flagella spin like propellers.
Cellulose is gives cell walls rigidity. Have students identify fruits and vegetables that are high and low in cellulose
ORGANELLES An organelle is a Cell Component that PERFORMS SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS FOR THE CELL. 3. Just as the organs of a multicellular organism carry out the organism's life functions, the Organelles of a cell Maintain the Life of the Cell.
PLASMA MEMBRANE THE OUTER BOUNDARY) 1. The entire cell is Surrounded by A THIN MEMBRANE, called the PLASMA OR CELL MEMBRANE. This is the cell's outer boundary that covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and the outside of a cell.
CYTOPLASM EVERYTHING BETWEEN THE PLASMA MEMBRANE AND THE NUCLEUS IS THE CELL'S CYTOPLASM. This includes the Fluid, the Cytoskeleton, and all the organelles Except the Nucleus. 2. CYTOPLASM consists of TWO MAIN COMPONENTS: CYTOSOL and ORGANELLES.
ORGANELLES ORGANELLES ARE STRUCTURES THAT WORK LIKE MINIATURE ORGANS, THEY CARRY OUT SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS IN THE CELL. 6. The ORGANELLES PLUS THE CYTOSOL makes up the CYTOPLASM.
In Eukaryotic Cells, most Organelles are surrounded by a MEMBRANE
Prokaryotic Cells have NO MEMBRANE
A Large Organelle near the Center of the Cell is the is the NUCLEUS. IT CONTAINS THE CELL'S GENETIC INFORMATION AND CONTROLS THE ACTIVITIES OF THE CELL. 2. The PRESENCE OR ABSENCE of a NUCLEUS is important for Classifying Cells
A. ORGANISMS WHOSE CELL CONTAIN A NUCLEUS AND OTHER MEMBRANE-BOUND ORGANELLES ARE CALLED EUKARYOTES
B. ORGANISMS WHOSE CELLS NEVER CONTAIN (OR LACK) A NUCLEUS AND OTHER MEMBRANE-BOUND ORGANELLES ARE CALLED PROKARYOTES
UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS such as bacteria and their relatives are Prokaryotes
organisms that are Eukaryotes plants, fish, mammals, insects and humans
COLONIES A Colonial Organism is a collection of Genetically Identical Cells that live together in a closely connected Group. Colonial organisms are Not truly multicellular Because few cell activities are coordinated
TRUE MULTICELLULAR 3 Cellular Level: Tissue Level: Organ System Level:
Created by: kmac