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OMM midterm

terms for exam

QuestionAnswer
Allopathy system in which a disease is treated by producing a second condition that is incompatible with or antagonistic to the first. (Stedman’s)
Allopath A term used to refer those holding a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree, a non-osteopathic medical degree.
Anterior component A positional descriptor used to identify the side of reference when rotation of a vertebra has occurred; in a condition of right rotation, the left side is the anterior component; usually refers to the less prominent transverse process.
Articulation a. The place of union or junction between two or more bones of the skeleton. b. The active or passive process of moving a joint through its permitted anatomic range of motion.
Asymmetry Absence of symmetry of position or motion; dissimilarity in corresponding parts or organs on opposite sides of the body that are normally alike; of particular use when describing position or motion alteration resulting from somatic dysfunction.
Axis a. An imaginary line about which motion occurs. b. The second cervical vertebra. c. One component of an axis system.
Backward bending Opposite of forward bending
Barrier: Anatomic The limit to motion; in defining barriers, the palpatory end-feel characteristics are useful.: the limit of motion imposed by anatomic structure; the limit of passive motion.
Barrier: Elastic the range between the physiologic and anatomic barrier of motion in which passive ligamentous stretching occurs before tissue disruption.
Barrier: Pathologic a restriction of joint motion associated with pathologic change of tissues (example: osteophytes).
Barrier: Physiologic The limit of active motion.
Barrier: Restrictive a functional limit that abnormally diminishes the normal physiologic range.
Body Unity : One of the basic tenets of the osteopathic philosophy; the human being is a dynamic unit of function; See also osteopathic philosophy.
Bogginess A tissue texture abnormality characterized principally by a palpable sense of sponginess in the tissue, interpreted as resulting from congestion due to increased fluid content.
Caudad toward the tail or inferiorly.
Cephalad toward the head
-ed : A suffix describing status, position, or condition (e.g., extended, flexed, rotated, restricted).
End feel Perceived quality of motion as an anatomic or physiologic restrictive barrier is approached.
Health Adaptive and optimal attainment of physical, mental, emotional, spiritual and environmental well-being.
-ion A suffix describing a process or movement (e.g., extension, flexion, rotation, restriction).
Kyphosis a. The exaggerated (pathologic) A-P curve of the thoracic spine with concavity anteriorly. b. Abnormally increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side (Dorland’s).
Lordosis a.The anterior convexity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side.Refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back) and normal curvature (normal lordosis). b.An abnormal extension deformity; anteroposterior curvature
Lordotic pertaining to or characterized by lordosis
Motion a. A change of position (rotation, and/or translation) with respect to a fixed system b. An act or process of a body changing position in terms of direction, course and velocity.
Active motion movement produced voluntarily by patient
Passive motion : motion induced by the osteopathic practitioner while the patient remains passive or relaxed
Physiological motion : changes in position of body structures within the normal range. See also physiologic motion of the spine.
Translatory motion motion of a body part along an axis
Direct method a. An osteopathic treatment strategy by which the restrictive barrier is engaged and a final activating force is applied to correct somatic dysfunction.
Indirect method a. A manipulative technique where the restrictive barrier is disengaged and the dysfunctional body part is moved away from the restrictive barrier until tissue tension is equal in one or all planes and directions.
Inhibitory Pressure technique the application of steady pressure to soft tissues to reduce reflex activity and produce relaxation.
Range of motion technique active or passive movement of a body part to its physiologic or anatomic limit in any or all planes of motion
Palpation diagnosis : A term used by osteopathic practitioners to denote the process of palpating the patient to evaluate the structure and function of the neuromusculoskeletal and visceral systems.
Palpatory skills Sensory skills used in performing palpatory diagnosis and osteopathic manipulative treatment
Physiological motion of spine: 1 When the thoracic and lumbar spine are in a neutral position, the coupled motions of sidebending and rotation for a group of vertebrae are such that sidebending and rotation occur in opposite directions (rotation occurring toward the convexity).type I s.
Physiological motion of spine: 2 When the thoracic and lumbar spine are sufficiently forward or backwardbent (non-neutral), the coupled motions of sidebending and rotation in a single vertebral unit occur in the same direction. type II, s.d
Physiological motion of spine: 3 . Initiating motion of a vertebral segment in any plane of motion will modify the movement of that segment in other planes of motion.
Physiological motion of spine . Principles I and II of thoracic and lumbar spinal motion described by Harrison H. Fryette, DO (1918), Principle III was described by C.R. Nelson, DO (1948). See rotation. See also rotation of vertebra
Plane A flat surface determined by the position of three points in space. Any of a number of imaginary surfaces passing through the body and dividing it into segments.
Frontal or Coronal Plane a plane passing longitudinally through the body from one side to the other, and dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions.
Horizontal or Transverse plane a plane passing horizontally through the body perpendicular to the sagittal and frontal planes, dividing the body into upper and lower portions.
Saggital Plane a plane passing longitudinally through the body from front to back and dividing it into right and left portions. The median or midsagittal plane divides the body into approximately equal right and left portions.
Restriction : A resistance or impediment to movement. For joint restriction, See barrier (motion barrier).
Rule of threes A method to locate the approximate position of the transverse process (TP) of a thoracic segment by using the location of the spinous process (SP) of that same vertebra.
Rule of threes T1 to T3, TP is at the same level as tip of the SP T4 to T6, TP is one half vertebral level
Rules of threes above the tip of the SP • T7 to T9, TP is one full vertebral level above the tip of the SP T10, TP is one full vertebral level above the tip of the SP T11, TP is one half vertebral level above the tip of the SP T12, TP is at the same level as tip of t
Segment A portion of a larger body or structure set off by natural or arbitrarily established boundaries, often equated with spinal segment. To describe a single vertebrae or a vertebral segment, corresponding to the sites of origin of rootlets of individual spin
Segmental motion Movement within a vertebral unit described by displacement of a point at the anteriorsuperior aspect of the superior vertebral body with respect to the segment below.
Sidebending Movement in a coronal (frontal) plane about an anteriorposterior (x) axis. Also called lateral flexion, lateroflexion, or flexion right (or left).
Sidebent The position of any one or several vertebral bodies after sidebending has occurred.
Skin drag Sense of resistance to light traction applied to the skin. Related to the degree of moisture and degree of sympathetic nervous system activity.
S.T.A.R A mnemonic for four diagnostic criteria of somatic dysfunction: Sensitivity changes Tissue texture abnormality Asymmetry and alteration of the quality and quantity of range of motion Range of motion
Stretching Separation of the origin and insertion of a muscle and/or attachments of fascia and ligaments.
Stringiness A palpable tissue texture abnormality characterized by fine or stringlike myofascial structures.
T.A.R.T A mnemonic for four diagnostic criteria of somatic dysfunction: Tissue texture abnormality, Asymmetry Restriction of motion Tenderness Anyone of which must be present for a diagnosis
Tenderness a.Discomfort or pain elicited by the osteopathic practitioner through palpation. b.A state of unusual sensitivity to touch or pressure (Dorland’s).
Tissue Texture Abnormality (TTA) Palpable change in tissues from skin to periarticular structures that represents any combination of the following signs:vasodilation, edema, flaccidity, hypertonicity, contracture, fibrosis, as well as the following symptoms:itching, pain, tenderness, par
Traction A linear force acting to draw structures apart
Transverse Process Projects laterally from the region of each pedicle. The pedicle connects the posterior elements to the vertebral body.
Vertebral Unit Two adjacent vertebrae with their associated intervertebral disk, arthrodial, ligamentous, muscular, vascular, lymphatic and neural elements.
Osteopathic Principles (tenets) The body is a unit structure and function are related at all levels
First College of Osteopathic Medicine Kirksville, MO 1982
Classic osteopathic philosophy of health Health is a natural state of harmony The human body is a perfect machine created for health and activity A healthy state exists as long as there is normal flow of body fluids and nerve activity
Disease effect of underlying, often multifactorial causes Illness is often caused by mechanical impediments to normal flow of body fluids and nerve activity Environmental, social, mental, and behavioral factors contribute to the etiology of disease and illness
Gravitational line Viewing the patient from the side, an imaginary line in a coronal plane which, describes the theoretical ideal posture used to evaluate the anterior-posterior curves of the spine
What should line up in a gravatational line? External auditory meatus (canal) Third lumbar vertebrae Greater trochanter Lateral malleolus
scoliosis Pathological or functional lateral curvature of the spine An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine
kyphoscoliosis both kyphosis and scoliosis
Somatic Dysfunction impaired or altered function of related components of the somatic (body framework) system. Skeletal, arhrodial, myofascial structures and their related vascular, lyphatic and natural elements.
Longitudinal axis plane that runs between sagital and coronal
OSU college of Medicine founded in 1972
Treatment of patients osteopathy The human body provides all the chemicals necessary for the needs of its tissues and organs Removal of mechanical impediments allows optimal body fluid flow, nerve function, and restoration of health
Treatments of patients osteopathy 2 Environmental, cultural, social, mental, and behavioral factors need to be addressed as part of any management plan Any management plan should realistically meet the needs of the individual patient
coordination of five basic body functions Posture and Motion Circulation of Body Fluid “The Rule of the artery is supreme” Metabolic Immune Endocrine Neurologic Balance (CNS-ANS-PNS) Behavioral Adaptation
The four tenants of osteopathy The body is a unit (mind, body, spirit) The body is capable of self-regulation, self-healing and health maintenance Structure & Function are reciprocally interrelated Rational therapy is based upon the understanding of the first three principles
"To find health should be the object of the doctor; anyone can find disease." A.T.Still on rational treatment, taking care of the patients needs reastablishing homeostasis
Allostasis The shift of homeostatic rhythms into a defensive mode. Maintaining stability through change.
Stress--Definition The sum of biological reactions to any adverse stimulus, physical, mental, or emotional, internal or external that tends to disturb the organism’s homeostasis Toward allostasis
Holmes & Rahe Social Readjustment Scale Scale rating levels of distress for different events in your life. With prolonged distress, you can get disease, illness, cancer, and many others.
Created by: vpack87