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exam 1

Determine ancestral vs. derived character states primitive condition vs. evolutionarily modified condition
what are the 2 fundamental principles of cladistics? 1.only use shared derived characteristics 2.only name monophyletic groups
what similar observations did darwin and wallace had they each made that led them to the same principle of natural selection? Island forms similar to nearest mainland. different island forms have different adaptations close. closer islands have more similar forms than more distant
what are the 3 necessary conditions for natural selection to occur? 1.variation-all sexually reproducing species vary in characteristics 2.differential reproduction-species reproduce in excess of the numbers that can survive 3.heredity-traits can be passed from 1 generation to the next
what one more thing is necessary for speciation to occur? fitness-individuals with improved fitness are more likely to survive and reproduce
what is the function of the nucleolus? manufactures ribosomes and exports them to the cytoplasm
what is the function of the nucleus? the 'brain' of the cell, surrounded by a nuclear envelope, holds the nucleolus and chromatin
what is the function of the cytoplasm? maintains the shape of the cell and provides suspension for the organelles
what is the function of the plasma membrane? it protects the cell from the outside environment; made up of a phospholipid bilayer studded with proteins
what is the function of the nuclear envelope? a double membrane that separates the dna from the cytoplasm
what is the function of chromatin? uncoiled DNA;makes up a chromosome
mitochondria "power plant of cell"; use O2 and glucose products to make ATP
RER covered with ribosomes; manufactures peptides and polypeptides
SER no ribosomes; manufactures lipids and phospholipids
golgi apparatus processes and packages secretory products; creates vacuoles
lysosomes cell's waste disposal system, fused with vacuoles; digests macromolecules
ribosomes found on RER or floating in the cytoplasm; site of protein synthesis, made up of RNA
cytoskeleton maintains cell shape and protects the cell; composed of microfilaments and microtubules
microfilaments thin strand-like proteins: actin and myosin
microtubules thicker tubulin protein
chromatid a pair of duplicated strands of a chromosome
what are the 4 major tissue types? connective, muscle, nervous, and epithelial
connective holds tissues together, i.e. organs
muscle smooth-found in the inner linings of organs skeletal-attached to bone cardiac-heart
nervous found in the CNS and PNS
epithelial cover organ surfaces i.e. skin, airways, and the inner lining of the digestive tract
what is the "central dogma" of biology? DNA --> RNA --> protein
describe 3 lines of evidence that support the endosymbiont hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotic cells cell membrane structure is similar, organelles have DNA, and prokaryotes demonstrate endosymbiosis
name 4 diagnostic characteristics that distinguish animals from other living organisms eukaryotic, multicellular, collagen-containing, heterotrophs
characteristics of a living organism carbon-based, cellular, metabolizing, reproducing
contrast plants and animals in terms of where they get the carbon to make biomolecules from plants get C from CO2; animals get C from the biomolecules they eat
sugars form? carbohydrates
amino acids make up? proteins
fatty acids are in? lipids
nucleotides form? nucleic acids
isolecithal little yolk; complete cleavage; same sized blastomeres
mesolecithal some yolk; complete cleavage; blastomeres are unequal --> yolky ones are bigger
telolecithal so much yolk can't cleave through it; embryo splayed out on top with bottom of cells open to yolk
5 stages an animal goes through fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, organogenesis, variable period of growth
what blastula actually looks like depends on cleavage pattern and amount of yolk present
regulative development radial cleavage; blastomere undetermined
mosaic development spiral cleavage; blastomere determined
protostome blastomere signifies mouth end
deutorostome blastomere becomes anus
diffusion movement of solutes across a permeable barrier from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
osmosis the movement of water across a water permeable membrane from a region with a lower solute concentration to a region with higher solute concentration
mediated transport requires transporter molecules
Created by: janetnerd1982