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The layers of the neck endocrine; respiratory; alimentary
Respiratory Layer is comprised of what? trachea and larynx
Fx of Respiratory layer routing air and food into proper places; providing patent airway + sealing; voice production
What vertebral levels is the larynx aligned with? C3-C6
What does the larynx connect? pharynx with trachea
Fx of larynx guard airway passage: sphincter of lower respiratory tract: maintains airway during swallowing
Give the laryngeal cartilages (un/paired) 9: Single-thyroid, cricoid, epiglottic; paired-arytenoid, cuniform, corniculates
Superior border of thyroid cartilage is at what cervical vertebrae level? C4
What forms the Adam’s Apple aka? Laryngeal prominence; the inferior 2/3 of the thyroid laminas fuse anteriorly
What is the superior thyroid notch? the v shaped notch just superior to the laryngeal prominence
What is the inferior thyroid notch? Inferior part of thyroid cartilage
What are the posterior superior and inferior lamina projections known as? superior and inferior cornu
What does the superior horn connect to? Attaches to hyoid via thyrohyoid membrane
The thyrohyoid membrane has what ligaments? mediallymedian thyrohyoid lig; laterallylat. Thyrohyoid lig.
What does the inferior horn articulate to? lateral surface of cricoids cartilage at cricothyroid jts
What is the significance to the cricothyroid joint? rotation and gliding of thyroid changes in vocal cord length
Which cartilage makes a complete ring around the airway? cricothyroid
Anterior band of cricoids is called what? arch
What does the median cricothyroid ligament do? attaches cricoids to inferior margin of thyroid
What does the cricotracheal ligament do? attaches cricoid to first tracheal ring
Arytenoid cartilage 3 sided pyramidal shaped; attaches to superior lateral cricoids; has vocal process, has mm process
Arytenoid mm cricoid arytenoids that attach at muscular process
Cricoid-Arytenoid joint allows arytenoids to move toward and away from each other, rotate, and move ant/post
Cricoid-Arytenoid jts affect what? vocal fold movement
What do the vocal ligaments comprise? vocal folds (submucosal); free border of consus elasticus and cricovocal memb.
Vocal ligaments go from what to what thyroid cartilage’s lamina-arytenoid cartilage (vocal process)
Conus elasticus Blends anteriorly with thyrocricoid ligament (medial); closes tracheal inlet (except at vocal folds)
Lateral cricothyroid ligaments go from where to where? vocal folds and cricoid
What is the rima glottidis? opening btw vocal folds
What attachments does the epiglottis have and how? to thyroid laminae thyro-epiglottic lig; ant hyoid hyo-epi. Lig
The quadrangular membrane extends btw what? goes btw lat. Arytenoids and epiglottic cartilages
What are the quadrangular mem. parts? Vestibule &vestibular folds; aryepiglottic lig/which form fold.@ free sup. End
What are the nodule like structures in ary-epiglottic fold? corniculate and cuneiform cartilages
What do corniculate cartilages attach to? arytenoids
What do cuneiform cartilages attach to? they don’t directly attach to other cartilages
What structures comprise the submucosal, fibro-elastic membrane of larynx? quadrangular mem. and conus elasticus
Laryngeal inlet is between what? pharynx and larynx
What is the laryngeal cavity? laryngeal inlet to inf. Border of cricoid cartilage
Laryngeal vestibule is btw what? vestibular folds and laryngeal inlet
Laryngeal ventricle medial to lateral recess btw. Vestibular and vocal fold (vertical orientation))
What are laryngeal saccules? blind pockets into each ventricle; lined with mucosal glands
Infraglottic cavity btw vocal folds and inf. Part of cricoid cartilage-continuous with trachea
What are vocal folds comprised of? vocal ligament (med. Free edge of conus elasticus); vocalis muscle;
Vocal fold fx control sound production; main inspiratory sphincter when tightly closed
Glottis is made up of what? rima glottis and vocal folds and processes-glottis is the vocal apparatus
Shape of glottis during a)normal breathing b)forced respiration & c) phonation a)narrow (wedge) b)wide (trap.)c)slit
What makes male voice low? long vocal cords
Fx of vestibular folds protective
Extrinsic laryngeal mm-name and fx Infrahyoid-depress hyoid; suprahyoid-elevate hyoid; stylopharyngeous-elevates hy.
Intrinsic laryngeal mm adductors lateral crico-arytenoid mm; transverse and oblique arytenoid mm;
Intrinsic laryngeal mm nervous supply (except for which mm?) recurrent laryngeal nerve of vagus (not cricothyroid mm)
Which nerve supplies cricothyroid mm? External laryngeal mm which is a branch of the superior laryngeal nerve
Lateral crico-arytenoid mm fx? pulls vocal cords anteriorly and arytenoid cartilage rotates, swings vocal processes med.
Transverse and oblique arytenoids fx adduct the arytenoids toward one another.
How does whispering work? Transverse arytenoids mm not AD, but vocal lig are adducted
What does the post. crico-arytenoid mm do? Abductor, rotates vocal processes laterally; widens rima glottidis
How does the sphincter function? closes off airway in strong reflex via the ary-epliglottic mm pulling on the AD mm
What is the tensor mm and how does it work cricothyroid mm pulls thyroid prominence ant. & inf. to arch of cricoid What is the outcome of the tensor mm action?
What are relaxer mm? Thyroarytenoid mm; pulls arytenoids toward thyroid prominence; lowers pitch
What are vocalis mm fx? medial thyroarytenoid mm and lateral to vocal cords; produce minute adjustments to voice
Describe sup and inf laryngeal arteries branches of sup and inf thyroid a. which are branches of ext and com. carotid a.
What does sup. larynx. a supply? internal surface of larynx
What does inferior laryngeal a supply? inf. part of larynx
Cricothyroid artery does what? supplies cricothyroid mm; small branch of sup. thyroid a.
Veins follow accompanying arteries!
Sup. Laryngeal vein drains into? superior thyroid veininternal jugular vein
Inf. laryngeal vein drains into inf. thyroid veinL brachiocephalic vein
Describe lymph node drainage inf to vocal foldsinf. deep cervical lymph nodes; sup to vocal foldssup. deep cervical
Describe origin of superior laryngeal nerve from vagus;
Describe internal branch sup. lary. N sensory for laryngeal cavity, membrane of vestibule, & vocal folds
Describe external branch sup. lary. n motor for cricothyroid mm
Inferior laryngeal nerve branch of recurrent laryngeal n and motor supply for all laryngeal mm except cricothyroid mm
Recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of ? vagus n
Trachea spans what vertebral levels? C6-btw T4 and T5
Created by: VCOM2013