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Nutrition Ch. 12

Body Fluids and Major Minerals

Ions Charged atoms
Extracellular Fluids Outside of the cells; ex. bloodstream
Interstitial Fluids Between cells
Intracellular Fluids Inside of the cells
Thirst Mechanism 10% decrease in blood volume or 1 to 2% increase in blood particles stimulates the hypothalamus and cause a dry mouth
ADH Releases by the pituitary when salt concentration is too high or blood volume/pressure too low. Causes kidneys to reabsorb water
Rennin Angiotensin System Rennin is released by kidneys when BP is low, which then activates the protein Angiotensin, which constricts blood vessels and cause kidneys to reabsorb Na and water
Aldosterone Hormone released by the adrenal glands, causes kidneys to reabsorb NA and water
Obligatory Water Loss Minimum amount of water required to dispose of water in the urine; About a half of liter/ 2 cups
Dehydration Excessive water loss; cause by low intake, diarrhea or vomiting; Causes thirst, weakness, delirium, exhaustion
Water intoxication Excessive water intake in a short period of time, Causes confusion, convulsions, and brain swells
Osmosis Movement of water from high to low water concentration
Cation Positive atom
Anion Negative atom
Electrolytes Salts that break apart in water and conduct electricity
Acidosis Blood pH less than 7.35, depresses the nervous system causing coma
Alkalosis Blood pH greater than 7.45, over excites the nervous system causing irritability
Bicarbonate Buffer System Most active of the 3 buffer systems. 3 components: H+, HC03-, and H2CO3.
Na (or Sodium) Required for muscle contraction, nerve transmission and regulate extracellular fluid. Min. 500mg
Toxicity of Na Occurs at 5000mg, causes swelling and high BP
Sources of Na Table salt and processed food
Cl (or Chlorine) Part of the HCl molecule, in extracellular fluid, no deficiency
Toxicity of Cl Occurs at 10,000mg, causes vomiting
Sources of Cl Table salt and processed food
K (or Potassium) Main positive atom inside of cells, required for muscles and nerves; Min. 2,000mg
Deficiency of K Causes weakness and arrhythmias
Toxicity of K Occurs 11,000mg, causes weakness, vomiting, and cardiac arrest
Sources of K Fruits, vegetables, milk, meat and beans
Ca (or Calcium) Required by bones, muscles and blood clotting. Acidity improves absorption. Fiber inhibits absorption. Requires Ca binding protein to be absorbed
Deficiency of Ca Causes slow growth, bone loss and tetany
Toxicity of Ca Occurs at 2,500mg, causes kidney stones , rigor and constipation
Tetany Intermittent muscle spasm
Rigor Hard and stiff muscle
Parathyroid hormone Moves Ca from the bone into the blood
Calcitonin Moves Ca from the blood into the bone
P (or Phosphorus) Needed in ATP, DNA, RNA, Phospholipids, hydroxyapatite,and Phosphate buffer system
Deficiency of P Causes weakness and bone pain
Toxicity of P Occurs at 4,000mg, causes Ca to excreted by the body
Mg (or Magnesium) Needed in bones, hold Ca inside tooth enamel, required by 300+ enzymes
Deficiency of Mg Causes weakness, confusion, and difficulty swallowing
Toxicity of Mg Occurs at 350mg, Causes diarrhea, dehydration, and elevated pH
Sources of Mg Green vegetables, nuts, beans, seafood and chocolate
S (or Sulfur) Stabilize proteins, used to make insulin; deficiency is unknown
Toxicity of S Suppress growth, affects children more than adult
Sources of S Meat, milk, nuts and beans
Created by: Futuredoctor09