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Musculosketal Care

Chapter 29

Acromioclavicular (A/C) joint A simple joint where the bony projections of the scapula and the clavicle meet at the top of the shoulder.
Articular cartilage A pearly layer of specialized cartilage covring the articular surfaces (contact surfaces on the ends) of bones in synovial joints
Calcaneus The hell bone
Clavicle The collarbone
Closed fracture A fracture in which the skin is not broken
Compartment syndrome An elevation of pressure within a closed fascial compartment, characterized by extreme pain, decreased pain sensation, pain on stretching of affected muscles, and decreased power; frequently seen in fractures below the elbow or knee in children.
Crepitus A grating or grinding sensation or sound caused by fractured bone ends or joints rubbing together
Dislocation Disruption of a joint in which ligaments are damaged and the bone ends are completely displaced.
Displaced fracture A fracture in which bone fragments are separated from one another and no tin anatomic alignment.
Ecchymosi bruising or discoloration associated with bleeding within or under the skin.
Femur The thigh bone, which extends from the pelvis to the knee and is responsible for the formation of the hip and knee; the longest and largest bone in the body.
Fibula The outer and smaller bone of the two bones of the lower leg.
Fracture A break in the continuity of a bone.
Glenoid fossa The part of the scapula that joins with the humeral head to form the glenohumeral joint.
Hematuria Blood in the urine
Humerus The supporting bon of the upper arm that joins with the scapula (glenoid) to form the shoulder joint and with the ulna and radius to form the elbow joint.
Joint The place where two bones come into contact
Ligament A band of fibrous tissue that connects bones to bones, and supports and strengthens a joint.
Nondisplaced fracture A simple crack in the bone that has not caused the bone to move from its normal anatomic position; also called a hairline fracture
Open fracture Any break in a bone in which the overlying skin has been damaged
patella The kneecap
Point tenderness Tenderness that is sharply localized at the site of the injury, found by gently palpating along the bone with the tip of one finger.
Position of Function A hand position in which the wrist is slightly dorsiflexed and all finger joints are moderately flexed
Pubic Symphysis The firm cartilaginous joint between the two pubic bones.
Radius The bone on the thumb side of the forearm; important in both wrist and function
Reduce Return a dislocated joint or fractured bone to its normal position; set.
retroperitoneal space The space between the abdominal cavity and the posterior abdominal wall, containing the kidneys, certain large vessels, and parts of the gastrointestinal tract.
Scapula Shoulder blade
Sciatic Nerve The major nerve to the lower extremity; controls much of muscle function in the leg, and sensation in most of the leg and foot.
Skeletal muscle Striated muscles that are attached to bones and usually cross at least one joint.
Sling A bandage or material that helps to support the weight of an injured upper extremity.
Splint A flexible or rigid appliance used to protect and maintain the position of an injured extremity.
Sprain A joint injury involving damage to supporting ligaments, and sometimes partial or temporary dislocation of bone ends.
Strain Stretching or tearing of a muscle; also called a muscle pull.
Swathe A bandage that passes around the chest to secure an injured arm to the chest.
tendon A tough, ropelike cord of fibrous tissue that attaches a skeletal muscle to a bone
Tibia The larger of the two lower leg bones responsible for supporting the major weight-bering surface of the knee and the ankle; the shinbone.
Traction Longitudinal force applied to a structure.
Ulna The bone on the small finger side of the forearm; most important for elbow function
Zone of injury the area of potentially damaged soft tissue, adjacent nerves, and blood vessels surrounding an injury to a bone or a joint.
Created by: azoch