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Nutrition Ch. 11

Fat Soluble Vitamins

3 Forms of Vitamin A Retinol(Alcohol), Retinal(Aldehyde), and Retinoic acid(acid)
Retinol Binding Protein Carries retinol from the liver to cell
Vision Chemistry Visual molecule- rhodopsin, made of retinal(vit.A) and opsin(protein). Dark- retinal is bent and attached to opsin. Light- strengthens the retinal and breaks it off the opsin. Enzymes rebents and reattaches it to opsin
Night Blindness Slow recovery of vision in the dark after a bright flash of light
Other roles of Vitamin A Required: for goblet and epithelial cells development, by the immune system, for bone remodeling, steroids and thyroid hormones production
Xerophtalmia Blindness due to damage to the cornea, cause by Vitamin A deficiency
Beta-carotene Vitamin A precursor in plants, make vitamin out of it, yellowish
Vitamin A toxicity symptoms Occurs at 15,000ug; Cause joint pain, headache, slow clotting time, dry skin, nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, irritability, insomnia, amenorrhea, slow metabolism, and birth defects
Accutane & Retin-A Made from Vitamin A, thins the skin to reduce acne
Sources of Vitamin A Liver, dairy, some fruits and vegetables(mostly yellowish ones); killed inn fast foods
Vitamin D Can be made in skin with cholesterol and sunlight, elongate intestinal villi, increase Ca absorption, promotes bone mineralization, increase resistance to TB
Deficiency of Vitamin D Called Rickets, causes soft bones
Toxicity of Vitamin D Cause Ca deposits in soft tissues, such as kidney stones,
Sources of Vitamin D Dairy, 15 minutes of sun several times a week
Tocopherol General name for the four forms of Vitamin E
Free Radicals Atoms or molecules with an unpaired electron; very reactive, get it from everything- sunlight, smoking, pollution, etc.
Toxicity of Tocopherol Occurs 1000mg, causes nausea, cramps, fatigue, blurry vision
Sources of Tocopherol Oils, seeds, nuts, eggs, leafy green vegetables; can be destroyed by heat
Vitamin E's main function Antioxidants for the lipid tissue in the body
Vitamin E deficiency symptoms Anemia, poor vision, loss of coordination, cis in the breast
Vitamin K Required in the liver to make clotting factors and to make bone proteins
Sources of Vitamin K Milk, leafy green vegetables, GI bacteria
Deficiency of Vitamin K Causes easy bleeding and weakness
Toxicity of Vitamin K Occurs at 100 times of RDA, cause jaundice, RBC hemolysis, and brain damage
Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn Excessive bleeding due to low Vitamin K because the GI bacteria is sterile and they produce less prothombin. Treatment- drop of Vit K in mouth
Created by: Futuredoctor09