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Nutrition Ch. 10

Water Soluble Vitamins

Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin C and all B vitamins
Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A, D, E, and K
Absorption & Storage of Water Soluble Absorb into blood stream, not readily stored, any excess is usually excreted in the urine
Absorption & Storage of Fat Soluble Absorb into the lympathic system, then into the blood stream, any excess can become stored and can cause toxic problems
Thiamin AKA B1, helps the enzyme that convert pyruvate into Acetyl CoA, no toxicity, easily destroyed by heat
Deficiency of Thiamin Called Beriberi, causes swelling, irritability, poor memory, and enlarged heart
Sources of Thiamin Pork, whole grains, pistachio nut, squash, watermelon and peas
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome A thiamin deficiency in alcoholics, causes disorientation, poor memory, difficulty walking, jerky eyes
Nutritional Yeast Dried yeast cells, high in B vitamins
Riboflavin AKA B2, formed FMN and FAD, no toxicity, easily destroyed by ultraviolet light/regular sunlight
Deficiency of Riboflavin Causes sensitivity to lights, red eyes, cracks at the corners of mouth, sore throat
Sources of Riboflavin Milk product, whole grains, oysters, clams, mushrooms
Niacin AKA B3, forms NAD
Deficiency of Niacin Called Pellagra, causes diarrhea, dermatitis(dark, flaky skin) and dementia
Sources of Niacin Meats, nuts, mushrooms, fish, and can be made by the body by the amino acid, Tryptophan
Toxicity of Niacin Occurs 3 times the RDA, causes flushed skin, tingling, pain, liver damage, ulcers. Larges doses can lower blood cholesterol, but produces serious side effects
Biotin Carries CO2 in the Kreb cycle, no toxicity
Deficiency of Biotin Causes skin rash, hair loss, depression, lethargy, tingling, and numbness. Raw egg white contain protein that binds to biotin and prevents absorption
Sources of Biotin Egg yolk, liver, soybeans, fish, whole grains, and GI bacteria
Pantothenic Acid Part of the coenzyme A molecule, also involve in the production of lipids, neutrotransmitters, hormones, and hemoglobin. Easily destroyed by processing, canning and freezing
Deficiency of Pantothenic Acid Causes vomiting, nausea, cramps, insomnia, fatigue, depression, irritability and restlessness
Sources of Pantothenic Acid Liver, mushrooms, avocados, broccoli, and whole grains
B6 Transfer amino group; involves in making Heme, DNA, RNA, and neurotransmitters. Inactivated by INH, TB, alcohol. Can be stored in muscle tissue. Easily destroyed by heat
Deficiency of B6 Causes depression, confusion, anemia, dermatitis, and convulsions
Toxicity of B6 Occurs at 100mg; causes depression, fatigue, headaches, numbness, irritability, nerve damage
Sources of B6 Meat, bananas, watermelons, squash, potatoes, and prune juices.
Folate Help converts Vitamin B12 into its usable form. Help make DNA and transfer Carbon during metabolism. Participate in Enterohepatic circulation. Decrease heart disease and cancer. Easily destroyed by heat. Can reduced by smoking, aspirin, and antacids.
Deficiency of Folate Causes anemia, smooth red tongue, confusion, weakness, fatigue, headache, irritability and neural tube defects.
Toxicity of Folate Occurs at 1000ug
Sources of Folate Leafy green vegetables, whole grain, okra, asparagus, legumes(beans and peas), seeds and liver.
B12 Help make amino acids, DNA, and RNA. Help maintains the myelin sheath. Require for bone cell function. Participates in the enterohepatic circulation. Requires Intrinsic Factor, to be absorbed. Easily destroyed by microwaves
Deficiency of B12 Causes pernicious anemia, smooth sore tongue, fatigue, paralysis, nerve damage.
Sources of B12 Meat, milk products, and eggs
Vitamin C AKA Ascorbic acid, antioxidant for the water soluble area of the body. Requires to make collagen, metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, neurotransmitter, and hormones, immune response and tissue repair. Deactivates histamine
Deficiency of Vitamin C Called scurvy. Causes weak connective tissue, bleeding, fragile bones, muscle degeneration
Toxicity of Vitamin C Occurs at 2000mg, causes nausea, cramps, diarrhea, headache, fatigue, insomnia, rash, and kidney stones
Sources of Vitamin C Citric fruits, tomatoes, broccoli, potatoes, red/green peppers
Created by: Futuredoctor09