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Toxicology Midwester

Hydrocarbons - Petroleum distillates --> Symptoms Pulmonary irritation, CNS Depression, severe pneumonitis after inhalation
Hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates --> Treatment Symptoms and support vital signs, emesis and gastric lavage are contraindicated unless patient is intubated
Aromatic hydrocarbons --> Symptoms Low dose --> CNS stimulation High Dose --> initial stimulation followed by depression. Kidney and liver damage (high dose or prolonged exposure), arrhythmias, aplastic anemia, leukemia.
Aromatic hydrocarbons treatment DO not induce emesis, gastric lavage if aspiration can be prevented. Diazepam to control convulsions
Oxalic acid and oxalates Symptoms  local irritation and corrosion of the G.I. tract  muscle weakness, convulsions and collapse due to calcium chelation  renal tubular damage due to calcium oxalate precipitation
Oxalic acid and oxalate treatment Calcium in any form to precipiate oxalate, monitor renal functions and force fluids, calcium gluconate IV, DO NOT use gastric lavage or emetic compounds
Mineral acids symptoms  irritation, inflammation and/or necrosis in all parts of the GI tract exposed to the corrosive substance  death is usually due to unresolved hypovolemic shock after massive hemorrhage
Mineral acids treatments  do not use gastric lavage or emesis after ingestion of acids  dilute the acid with water  give analgesics to reduce pain  a non-specific antidote is milk of magnesia  treat symptomatically and support vital signs
Strong alkali symptoms  irritation, inflammation and tissue damage  these agents are more penetrating than strong acids  death is usually due to hypovolemic shock
Created by: Proteinpowda