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F/E Nursing

Fluid and Electrolytes

QuestionAnswer
Body Fluids Consist of water chemicals electrolytes acids bases
Electrolytes are: substances that carry an electrical charge when dissolved in fluid
Acids are substances that release ___ into fluid. Hydrogen
___ are substances that bind with hydrogen. Bases
The delicate balance of fluids, electrolytes, acids, and bases is ensured by an adequate intake of __ and ___ water nutrients
About __% of the adult human body is water. 60
Most body water is located ____. intracellular (within cell)
Extracellular fluid includes the water between cells (___) and in the plasma portion of blood (___). interstitial intravascular
In a healthy adult, oral fluid intake averages about ___ mL/day. The range is between ___ and ___mL/day. They will have the similar volume of fluid loss. 2500 1800 3000
The primary sources of body fluid are ___ and ___. food liquid
Examples of mechanisms of fluid loss: bowel elimination perspiration breathing
Loses form sweat and the vapor in exhaled air are referred to as ___. Insensible losses
Define translocation movement back and forth of fluids and exchange of chemicals including electrolytes, acids, and bases
Osmosis is the movement of water through a semipermeable membrane, one that allows some but not all substances in a solution to pass through from a dilute are to a more concentrated area.
Colloids large sized substances such as serum proteins (albumin, globulin, fibrinogen) and blood cells, do not readily pass through cell and tissue membranes.
Colloids they contribute to fluid concentration and act as a force for attracting water- a property referred to as colloidal osmotic pressure.
Example of osmosis If the solute concentration is higher in the cell, water is drawn through the membrane into the cell from the interstitial space. The process continues until the concentration is the same (isotonic) on both sides of the membrane.
Filtration promotes the movement of fluid and some dissolved substances through a semipermeable membrane according to pressure difference. It relocates water and chemicals from an area of high to low pressure
Example of Filtration fluid is under higher pressure at the arterial end than at teh venous end of capillaries. Filtration causes the fluid and some dissolved substances to move into the interstitial space. Most of the water is then reabsorbed at the venous end of the capillar
Filtrations effects how the ____ kidneys excrete fluid and wastes and then selectively reabsorbs water and other chemicals that need to be conserved.
The kidneys filter about ___ L of fluid from the blood each day; all but __ to __ L is reabsorbed. 180 1 1.5
Passive Diffusion is a physiologic process by which dissolved substances (electrolytes) move form an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration through a semipermeable membrane.
Passive diffusion, like ___, remains fairly static (unchanged) once equilibrium occurs. Osmosis
Facilitated Diffusion certain dissolved substances require assistance form a carrier molecule to pass through a semipermeable membrane.
Example of a Facilitated Diffusion is: the carrier substance insulin facilitates the distrubution of glucose molecules inside cells
Active Transport requires an energy source, a substance called ATP, to drive dissolved chemicals from an area of low to high concentration- the opposite of passive diffusion.
Example of Active Transport is the Na-K pump system
Na-K pump system its function is to move potassium from lower concentrations in the extracellular fluid into cells where potassium is highly concentrated. The pump also moves Na, which is in lower amounts in the cells, to extracellular fluid, where it is more abundant.
Metabolic disorders: diminish ATP, such as hypoxia, seriously affect normal cellular functions by impairing the distribution of chemicals in intracellular and extracellular fluid.
Under normal conditions several mechanisms maintain normal fluid volume and electrolyte concentrations. They include: osmoreceptors (the release or inhibition of antidiuretic hormones, the renin-angiotensisn-aldosterone system, and the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).
___ ____ is a general term describing any of several conditions in which the body's water is not in the proper volume or location. Fluid Imbalance
Common fluid imbalances include: hypovolemia, hypervolemia, and third spacing
Hypovolemia is a fluid voluve deficit. It refers to a low volume of extracellular fluid. Dissolved chemical substances such as electrolytes are usually similarly depleted.
Those who are at risk for hypovolemia are: lethargic depressed or vomiting have dementia have a fever difficulty swallowing diarrhea can't speak to communicate their needs eat poorly require assistance to drink because of weakness paralysis or limited range of motion take diuretics,
Dehydration results when the volume of body fluid is significantly reduced in both extracellular and intracellular compartments.
In _____, all fluid compartmetns have decreased volumes, in ____ only blood volume is low. dehydration hypovolemia
The most common fluid imbalance in older adults is dehydration
Factors that contribute to hypovolemia inadequate fluid intake fluid loss in excess of fluid intake such as with hemorrhage; Prolonged vomiting or diarrhea; wound loss (as with burn injury); or profuse urination or perspiration and translocaiton of fluid to compartments wher it is trap
When ____ volume is decreased, blood pressure falls and the heart compensates by increasing the heart rate to maintain adequate cardiac output. circulatory
__ falls with postural changes, or it may beoome severely lowered when blood is rapidly lost. Blood pressure
_____ a high ratio of blood components in realation to watery plasma, increaes the potenitial for blood clots and urinary stones and compromises the kidney's ability to excrete nitrogen waste. Hemoconcentration
Hypovolemia eventually ___ intracellular fluid which can affect cellular functions. depletes
Hypotonic cell big cell, little extracellular fluid
Hypertonic Cell small cell, lots of extracellular fluid
When ____ volume is decreased, blood pressure falls and the heart compensates by increasing the heart rate to maintain adequate cardiac output. circulatory
__ falls with postural changes, or it may beoome severely lowered when blood is rapidly lost. Blood pressure
_____ a high ratio of blood components in realation to watery plasma, increaes the potenitial for blood clots and urinary stones and compromises the kidney's ability to excrete nitrogen waste. Hemoconcentration
Hypovolemia eventually ___ intracellular fluid which can affect cellular functions. depletes
Hypotonic cell big cell, little extracellular fluid
Hypertonic Cell small cell, lots of extracellular fluid
Fluid and Electrolyte Balance is maintained by intricate and complicated ___ ____ homeostatic mechanisms
Homeostasis relative constancy in the internal environment of the body naturally maintained by adaptive responses to promote health and survival all systems must be working together to keep things balanced
Percentage of water ____ with age decreases
Infants and Children have higher percentage of fluids in _____ interstitial space
Largest percentage of total body water in an adult is located in the _____ intracellular fluid compartment
Infants, Children & the Elderly are at an ___ risk for complications from fluid loss increased
Babies ___ very quickly dehydrate
Body water is naturally supplied and replenished form 3 sources: drinking water, consuming food, oxidizing nutrients during metabolism
Sensible losses can be seen and are measurable
Insensible Losses Go unnoticed and are un-measurable
Normal Fluuid Losses: Bowel and urine elimination Diarrhea will cause more fluid loss Perspiration Breathing (hypo or hyperventilaton will cause an electrolyte problem) Exhaled air and perspiration
What will cause the most fluid loss diarrhea
Input should = output
As the body becomes concentrated brain triggers thirst sensation person is stimulated to drink fluid as the fluid volume expands, kidneys excrete a proportionate volume of water Proper fluid/electrolyte balance is restored
Body fluid is located in __ general compartments two (inside and outside the cell)
Intracellular fluid inside cells
Extracellular fluid outside cells
What are the two compartments of the extracellular interstitial fluid intravascular fluid
Interstitial fluid located in the tissue space between and around the cells (lymphatic fluid)
Intravascular Fluid watery plasma/serum portion of blood
The movement and relocation of water and substances within the body fluid are governed by 5 physiologic processes that are: osmosis filtration passive diffusion facilitated diffusion active transport
Osmosis regulated teh distribution of fluid from one compartemtn to another shifts fluid from one compartment to anotehr according to CONCENTRATION MOVES FROM MORE DILUTE AREA TO MORE CONCENTRATED AREA
Filtration promotes fluid movement through a semipermeable membrane according to pressure differences moves fluid form high to low pressure affects kidney excretion of fluid and wastes
Psssive Diffusion when dissolved substances move form high to low concentration through a semipermeable membrane
Created by: vargasge