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F/E imbalances

Hypernatremia Thirst Flushed, dry skin Sticky mucous membranes Orthostatic hypotension Agitation Low grade fever Altered cerebral functioning Hypotonic IV solutions
Hyponatremia Low sodium diet Increased GI motility- watery diarrhea Irritability, anxiety, confusion Muscle weakness, tremors Seizures Tachycardia Sodium Major cation in ECF Regulates body fluids Transmission/conduction of nerve impulses
Hyperkalemia Renal Failure Irritability Muscle weakness, flaccid paralysis Irregular heart rate, hypotension Tall peaked T waves, Wide QRS Kayexalate, diuretics, dialysis Level above 5.0
Hypokalemia Loss due to diuretics, vomiting, Skeletal muscle weakness U- wave Constipation Toxicity of digitalis Irregular weak pulse Orthostatic hypotension Numbness, leg cramps
Potassium Transmission of electrical impulse In heart and muscles Affects cell use of insulin Primary intracellular cation
Hypercalcemia Bone loss, fractures, malignancies Prolonged immobilization Depressed deep tendon reflexes Polyuria, hypoactive bowel sounds Lethargy, weakness, confusion 3000 to 4000 cc fluid/day Increased intake- supplements or antacids
Hypocalcemia Inadequate Vitamin D intake Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes Positive Chvosteks sign Positive Trousseau sign Tetany Easy fatigue Anxiety, confusion
Calcium Provides rigidity/strength to bones and teeth Aids in muscle/cardiac contractility Participates in blood coagulation Parathyroid Hormone/ Calcitonin
Hypermagnesemia Loss of deep tendon reflexes Lethargy, drowsiness Bradycardia, hypotension Treatment: loop diuretics Avoid Milk of Magnesia Slow, shallow respirations
Hypomagnesemia Alcoholism Acute renal failure Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes Paralytic ileus Positive Chvosteks sign Positive Trousseau sign Eat: rolled oats, tuna, raisens, pork Peanut butter, chocolate
Magnesium Normal range: 1.3 – 2.1 mg/dL Contracts myocardium Levels are linked to albumin level Influences utilization of K+, Ca++ and PRO Aids in neuromuscular activity
Created by: metcalfl